Abstract

InTthisTpaper,TITseekTtoTidentifyTwhichTfactorsTaffectTtheTSocio-EconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTregardingTtheTeducationTofTgirlsTandTboys,TasTwellTasofTwomenTandTmen,TacrossTtwoTcohortsTofTmarriedTwomenTinTBangladesh.TInTparticular,TITlookTatTtheTrelativeTimportanceTofTanTindividualTwoman’sTownTeducationalTbackgroundTandTthoseTofTherTspouseTandTotherTfamilyTmembersTinTshapingTherTattitudesT

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towardTgenderTequalityTinTeducation.

InequalityTisTlikeTanTepidemicTforTaTcountryTwhichTdestroysTaTcountry’sTdevelopmentTnotTonlyTforTaTgenerationTbutTalsoTforTaTlongTperiodTofTtime.TAmongTallTkindsTofTinequalitiesTgenderTinequalityTisTtheTextremeToneTasTitTaffectsTallTotherTsectors.TAsT

womenThasTcontributionTinTallTsectors.TBringingTwomenTintoTtheTmainstreamTeconomic
activitiesTandTensuringTequalTopportunityTisToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumT

DevelopmentTGoalsTasTpursuedTbyTtheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.

Introduction

ITaimTtoTaddTtoTthisTbodyTofTworkTbyTlookingTatTchangesTinTattitudesTregardingTsomeTaspectsTofTSocioEconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTdueTtoTeducationTinTBangladeshTduringTaTperiodTofTrapidTsocialTtransformation.TThisTworkTisTofTparticularTsignificanceTforaTnumberTofTreasons.TFirstTwhileTinTdevelopedTcountriesTwithThighqualityTdatasets thereThaveTbeenTmanyTanalysesTofTgenderTnormsTandTattitudes,TinTdevelopingTcountrieswithTlessThigh-qualityTdataTthereThaveTbeenTrelativelyTfewTstudiesTonTgenderTnorms,TandTthoseTthatT

haveTbeenTconductedThaveTbeenTrestrictedTtoTsmallTsamplesTandTtoTtopicsTsuchTasTattitudesTregardingTreproductiveTdecision making,TsexTpreferencesTforTchildren,TandTviolenceTagainstTwomen.TInTaddition,TmostTofTtheTresearchTconductedTinTdevelopingTcountriesThasTfocusedTonTusingTattitudesTasTexplanatoryTvariablesTforTaTnumberTofToutcomes,TratherTthanTasToutcomeTvariablesTinTtheirTownTright.

PreviousTresearchTonTeducationTandTgenderTnormsThasTprimarilyTfocusedTonTtheTquestionTofTwhetherTeducationTisTaTliberalizingTinfluenceTorTaTconstraintTonTattitudesTregardingTgenderTequality.TTheTresultsTofTtheseTstudiesTare,TtoTsayTtheTleast,TequivocalT(KaneT1995).TITsituateTmyTanalysisTonTchangingTattitudesTregardingTgirl’sTeducationTwithinT

theToverallTcontextTofTeducationalTexpansionTinTBangladesh,TandTtheTdefinitionsTofTsex

rolesTandTexpectationsTinTtheTculture.TBecauseTITprovideTquantitativeTevidenceTonTtheTdeterminantsTofTgenderTeducationTnormsTinTBangladesh,TmyTworkTalsoTcomplementsT

therelatedTearlierTworkTbyTSchulerTandTcolleagues,TwhichTinvolvedTindepthTinterviewsTandTgroupTdiscussionsT(see,Te.g.,TSchulerTetTal.T2006T(andTtheTreferencesTtherein)).

BackgroundT

BangladeshTprovidesTanTinterestingTcontextTforTanTanalysisTofTtheTchangesTinTgenderTnormsTregardingTeducation.TTheTgrowthTinTaccessTtoTeducation,TandTespeciallyTinTaccessTtoTsecondaryTeducationTforTgirls,TmayTbeTBangladesh’sTmostTdramaticTachievementTinTtheTlastTtwoTdecades.TInTtheTareaTofTfemaleTsecondaryTeducation,TBangladeshTstandsToutTasTaTshiningTsuccessTstoryTamongTlow-incomeTcountries,TBangladesh’sTprogressTisTespeciallyTcommendableTbecauseTtheTgrowthTinTfemaleTeducationTtookTplaceTwithinTaTdemocraticTregime,TandTstartedTfromTaTveryTlowTbase.

 

FigureT1:TEnrollmentTratesTinTEducation

Table:T1TGrossTenrollmentTratesTofTboysTandTgirlsTbyTlevelTandTregion

Primary
(GradeT1-5)

LowerTSec.
(GradeT6-8)

Secondary
(GradeT9-10)

HigherTSecondaryT(11-12)

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

BarisalT

93.9

93.6

55.4

58.9

45.8

58.1

44.7

35

ChittagongT

83.5

84.5

48.1

58.2

37.2

49.9

34.6

32.8

DhakaT

86.1

84.5

52.7

58.4

62.2

66.6

32.3

33.3

KhulnaT

96.1

99.5

60.7

66.9

58.3

71.5

39.3

36.2

RajshahiT

85.5

91.5

53.5

70.3

50.3

57.5

38.2

33.4

SylhetT

83.2

85.7

57.1

36.3

39.7

58

29.1

28.5

 

Source:TBANBEIST(GovernmentTofTBangladesh),T2015/016

TheTgrowthTinTeducationTandTtheTaccompanyingTsocialTchangesThaveTprobablyTbeenTtheTmostTimportantTrecentTdevelopmentsTinTBangladesh,TbutTthereTareTothersTasTwell.TStartingTfromTaTveryTlowTbaseTofT9%,TfemaleTlaborTforceTparticipationTpickedTupTtoToverT22%TduringTtheTyearsT1993?2003.TWhile,TasTindicated,TtheTfemaleTlaborTparticipationThasTincreased,TtheTfemale-maleTgapTinTlaborTforceTparticipationT(LFP)ThasTalsoTincreasedTinTrelativeTtermsToverTtheTpastTfewTdecades:T

InT1990TtheTLFPTwasT61.7%TforTfemalesTandT88.4TforTmales,TbutTbyT2011TitThadTdecreasedTtoT57.2%TforTfemalesTandT84.3%TforTmalesT(WDIT2013).TEvocativeTimagesTofThundredsTofTyoungTgirlsTwalkingTeveryTmorningTtoTtheTgarmentTfactoriesThaveTbeenTetchedTintoTtheTpopularTimaginationTasTaTmetaphorTforTprogress.TInfantTmortalityThasTdeclinedTfasterTinTBangladeshTthanTinTanyTotherTcountryTinTSouthTAsia.TTheTtotalTfertilityTrateTtodayTisTlessTthanTone-thirdTofTtheTrateTfourTdecadesTago,ThavingTdeclinedTfromTaboutT6.9TinT1971TtoTaboutT2.2TinT2011T(WDIT2013).TMeanwhile,TtheTmicrocreditTrevolutionTsweepingTtheTcountrysideThasTgivenTwomenTvisibilityTandTgreaterTstatus.TBetterTwaterTandTsanitationTfacilitiesThaveTreducedTtheTdrudgeryTexperiencedTbyTmothers,TwhoTnowThaveTtimeTforTotherTactivities.TAnTinformationTandTcommunicationTboomThasTresultedTfromTtheTwidespreadTavailabilityTofTradios,Ttelevisions,TandTmobileTphones.TTheTexpansionTofTruralTroadsTandTofTelectrificationThaveTenabledTmanyTpeopleTtoTfindTworkTbeyondTtraditionalTlow-productivityTcottageTindustries.TTheTavailabilityTofTmoreTsecureTmodesTofTtransportThasTalsoTgivenTpeopleTgreaterTmobility,TallowingTmoreTwomenTtoTmoveToutTofTtheirTvillagesTtoTtakeTjobsTinTtheTcityT(HossainTandTBoseT2004;TWorldTBankT2008).

WhileTtheTprogressTdescribedTaboveTisTreal,TseriousTproblemsTremainTinTBangladesh,TandTnewTonesTareTsurfacing.TThus,TwhileTwomen’sTstatusThasTimprovedTdramaticallyTinTtheTlastTfewTdecades,TgenderTinequalitiesTpersistTinTmanyTareas,TsuchTasTinTaccessTtoTmarkets,TpoliticalTforums,TandThigh-techTservices.TMoreover,TthereTareTsharpTdisparitiesTbasedTonTanTindividual’sTplaceTofTresidence,TwealthTquintile,TandTethnicity.TTheTpracticeTofTdowryTpaymentsTisTonTtheTrise,TandTisToneTofTtheTreasonsTwhyTtheTaverageTgirlTisTmarriedToffTbyTtheTtimeTsheTisT15TyearsTold.

ITdescribedTaboveTtheTextentTtoTwhichTeducationThasTexpandedTinTBangladesh.TITalsoTnotedTthatTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsThaveTchangedTtheTconservativeTmarriageTmarket,TasTincreasingTnumbers