Abstract—In gradually disappearing for the good. The fourth

Abstract—In recent years, there has been a plenty of
paradigm shifts occurring in the way people across the world could connect and
collaborate. Nowadays, wireless connectivity is almost everywhere and getting
highly affordable even for people who are

in the bottom of the pyramid. However
wireless connection is liable for several changes and challenges and therefore
is far more complex to implement and sustain than a wired system. Now, with the
cool arrival of third and fourth generation communication technologies, the
inhibiting trends such as unpredictability, signal fading, latency, jitter
etc., are gradually disappearing for the good. The fourth generation (4G)
wireless networks are all set to turn the current networks into end-to-end IP
networks. With the massive adoption of IPv6, every single device in the world
will have a unique IP address thereby IPbased devices, networks and
environments are going to shine in the days to unfurl. This significant
transition enables everything tangible in our midst to join into the raging
Internet bandwagon in order to be remotely monitored, managed and manipulated.
If 4G is implemented correctly and comprehensively, it will truly and
tantalizingly harmonize global roaming, high-speed connectivity, and
transparent end-user performance on every mobile device in the world. 4G is set
to deliver 100mbps to a roaming mobile device globally and up to 1gbps to a
stationary device. This allows video conferencing, streaming picture-perfect video
and much more. The maturity and stability of 4G technologies therefore breeds
innovation at faster pace and hence possibilities for novel and people-centric
services are huge. In this paper, we have highlighted the following critical
issues for the leading wireless broadband standards such as WiMAX, Mobile WiMAX
and 3GPP-LTE.

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Index Terms— WiMAX, 802.16e, 3GPP-LTE, SWOT

I.    
INTRODUCTION

W

ireless connectivity is increasingly pervasive and persuasive for
enabling the true mobility. Anywhere anytime communication, computation and
collaboration are the new norm being prescribed for every individual to be
extremely productive. Competent and compact wireless technologies have emerged
and evolved in order to fulfill the soaring expectations of businesses as well
as end-users. Currently third-generation (3G) communication technologies are on
the widespread usage across the continents, countries and counties and cities.
WiMAX (both fixed and mobile) versions are being pampered and promoted
vigorously by standard bodies, government agencies and mobile service providers
as the best option for providing affordable and last-mile connectivity.

Next-Generation Communication Standard –
Equipment manufacturers, product vendors, and researchers have already

plunged into experimenting and espousing next-generation (4G)
technologies. In a nutshell, accessing and availing information and Internet
services anywhere, anytime, any device, any channel, and any media are becoming
so common

and casual these days with the maturity of wireless communication
standards, infrastructures, and handy devices.

Handheld terminals are undergoing real transformations in
accommodating multiple functions through integration and miniaturization of
hardware modules. The Internet is stuffed with a number of professional and
personal services that could

be accessed using any kind of portable, wearable, nomadic and

wireless devices. Especially for video and other rich services, we
need true broadband technologies. There is a silent yet strategic convergence
happening in the mobile space. That is, video, voice and data are getting
smoothly merged to be transmitted through a single channel without much latency
and

viewed in a single device with all clarity. Such kinds of realtime
and seamless synchronization can be made possible with 4G technologies. Video
on demand, global roaming, true

interoperability among personal communication and assistive

devices being produced by different makers are being demanded by
people, who are on the know-how.

                Therefore the
future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP
(Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because
they will be able

to choose every application and environment. The design is that 4G
will be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which is
the key enabler of 4G technology. Other technological aspects of 4G are
adaptive processing and smart antennas, both of which will be used in

3G networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM. Currently 3G
networks still send there data digitally over a single channel, OFDM is
designed to send data over hundreds

of parallel streams, thus increasing the amount of information

that can be sent at a time over traditional CDMA networks. The 4G
data rates will vary depending on the number of channels that are available,
and can be used and technologies like adaptive processing, which detects
interference on a channel and improves reception by actively switching channels
to avoid interference. 4G networks will also use smart antenna technology,
which is used to aim the radio signal in the direction of the receiver in the
terminal from the base station. When teamed up with adaptive techniques, multiple
antennas can cancel out more interference while enhancing the signal. The 4G
plans are still years away, but transitioning from 3G to 4G should be seamless
for customers because 4G will have evolved from 3G. Users won’t even have to
get new phones. Digital applications are getting more common lately and are
creating an increasing demand for broadband communication systems. The
technical requirements for related products are very high but solutions must be
cheap to implement since we are essentially talking about consumer products.
For Satellite and for Cable; such cost-efficient solutions are already about
for the terrestrial link (i.e. original TV broadcasting) the requirements are
so high that the ‘standard’ solutions are no longer an option. Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a technology that allows transmitting
very high data rates over channels at a comparable low complexity. Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing is the choice of the transmission method for
the European digital radio (DAB) and Digital TV (DVB-T) standard. Owing to its
great benefit’s OFDM is being considered for future broadband application such
as wireless ATM as well.

II.    
History of Mobile Telephone
Technology

At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was

introduced, and designed to users in cars to the public landline

based telephone network. Then, in the 1960 a system launched by Bell
Systems, called IMTS, or, “Improved Mobile Telephone Service”, brought
quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very
first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and
early 70s. The systems were called “cellular” because

large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or
“cells”, each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver.

 

1G: 1G is first-generation wireless
telephone technology. This

generation of phones and networks is represented by the bricksized
analog phones introduced in the 1980’s. Subsequent

numbers refer to newer and upcoming technology.

 

2G: 2G phones use digital networks.
Going all-digital allowed

for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS and

email. 2G networks and their digital nature also made it more

difficult to eavesdrop on mobile phone calls.

 

3G: 3G networks are an in between
standard. 3G is seen more

as pre4G instead of a standard of its own. The advantage 3G

networks have over 2G networks is speed. 3G networks are built to
handle the needs of today’s wireless users. This standard of wireless networks
increases the speed of internet browsing, picture and video messaging, and
handheld GPS use.

 

4G: 4G (AKA Beyond 3G) is like the other
generations in that

its advantage lies in promised increased speeds in data
transmission. There is currently no formal definition for 4G, but there are
objectives. One of these objectives is for 4G to become a fully IP-based
system, much like modern computer networks. The supposed speeds for 4G will be
between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s.

 

TABLE I

History of Mobile Telephone Technologies

 

The Figure below shows the wireless technology evolution path for
WiMAX and LTE toward to ITU defined Advance 4G

Stands.

 

 

Figure 1: Evolution of Mobile Wireless Technologies

III.    
Mobile WIMAX

The Mobile WiMAX (802.16e) standard can provide tens of megabits per
second of capacity per channel from each base station (BS) with a baseline
configuration. Many pathbreaking

features such as adaptive antennas, which can significantly improve
the performance, are being embedded into WiMAX products. The high data
throughput enables efficient data multiplexing and low data latency to deliver
a host of people-centric services such as audio / video / web streaming, and
wireless VoIP with high quality of service (QoS). Ultimately the pervasive
Internet will become practical with the arrival of standards-compliant mobile
WiMAX solutions. The scalable architecture, high data throughput and low cost
deployment make the mobile WiMAX standard an exciting solution for an
astounding array of nimbler services. Hundreds of companies have contributed to
the development of this technology and many firms have announced detailed
product plans for this technology. This is an encouraging sign towards
providing the always-on mobile Internet at very low subscription cost. The broad
industry participation will ensure economies of scale that will help drive down
the costs of subscription and enable the deployment of mobile internet services
globally.

 

Mobile WiMAX (figure 2) is a broadband wireless solution that
enables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common
wide-area broadband radio access technology and flexible network architecture.
The mobile WiMAX Air Interface adopts Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access (OFDMA) for improved multi-path performance in non-line-of-sight (NLOS)
environments. Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) is introduced in the IEEE 802.16e to
support scalable channel bandwidths from 1.25 to

20 MHz. There are a number of budding and blooming technologies,
best-of-breed implementations, and other trendsetters in this happening field.
This is a welcome indication for the dreamt ubiquitous computing world.

 

Figure 2 : Mobile WIMAX (802.16e)

 

IV.    
3GPP-LTE

The growing commercialization of Global System for Mobile

Communications (GSM) and its evolution such as Universal

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet
Access (HSPA) have been the focus topic of 3GPP. The GSM / UMTS system is
perhaps the most successful communications technology family and its evolution
to beyond 3G becomes important issue for the next

global mobile-broadband solution. In parallel to evolving HSPA, 3GPP
is also specifying a new radio access technology

in Release 8 known as LTE in order to ensure the competitiveness of
UMTS.

 

LTE focuses to support the new Packet Switched (PS) capabilities
provided by the LTE radio interfaces and targets

more complex spectrum situations with fewer restrictions on

backwards compatibility. Main targets and requirements for the
design of LTE system have been captured in and can be summarized as follows.

 

Data Rate: Peak downlink rates of 100
Mbps and Uplink rates up to 50 Mbps for 20 MHz spectrum allocation, assuming 2
receive antennas and 1 transmit antenna at the terminal

 

Spectrum: Operation in both paired
(Frequency Division Duplex / FDD mode) and unpaired spectrum (Time Division

Duplex / TDD mode). Enabling deployment in many different

spectrum allocations with scalable bandwidth of 5, 10, 15, 20

MHz, and better efficiency (downlink target is 3-4 times better

than release 6 and uplink target is 2-3 times better)

 

Throughput: Mean user throughput per MHz
is 3-4 times (downlink) and 2-3 times (uplink) better than release 6. Cell-edge
user throughput is also expected to be improved by a factor 2 for uplink and
downlink

 

Latency: Significantly reduced
control-plane and user-plane requirements, i.e. less than 5ms in the
transmission of an IP packet (user-plane), allow fast transition times of less
than 100ms from camped state to active state (controlplane)

 

Costs: Reduced CAPEX and OPEX including
backhaul for both operators and users, and effective migration from previous
release shall be possible.

One of LTE requirement, as previously described, is to reduce

the costs by simplifying the radio architecture. Therefore the

number of nodes and interfaces in the network shall be

reduced and it means that the 3GPP LTE Radio Access

Network architecture need to group user plane functionalities

into one network node called evolved Node B (eNB). The

resulting radio architecture is commonly known as System

Architecture Evolution (SAE) and is depicted on Figure 3

below.

Figure 3 : Expanding Range Using Intermediate
Device

 

 

V.    
Model for Proposed Solution

This paper tries to expand the range of Bluetooth data transfer by
involving intermediate devices between the sender and receiver. A message from
the source goes to one or more intermediate device finally ends up at
destination. This is typically considers as a client server architecture. The
device which sends the data is the client and receives the data is the server.
The client node expands its network by searching for the Bluetooth enabled
device in its range. All devices continue this searching for devices within the
range until the destination is reached. A model of the proposed system is in
the figure 4.

 

Figure 4 : Model for Proposed Solution

 

This network consists of devices of smaller speed and relatively
smaller network. The routing algorithm I have chosen is distance vector routing
algorithm. The operation of the algorithm is as follows. When a node starts it
can directly access its immediate neighbors. Each node creates a list of nodes
that can be accessible. Each node, on a regular basis, sends to each neighbor
its own current idea of the total cost to get to all the destinations it knows
of. Cost is determined by the number of nodes in the path. The neighboring
nodes examine this information and update their routing table accordingly. Over
time, all the nodes in the network will discover the best next hop for all
destinations, and the best total cost.

A node wants to send message to another node in the
network first it check whether this node is in the range of the sender. If so
then it can directly send message. Otherwise it will set a path to the destination
through the intermediate devices. Each device sends their accessible device to
its neighbors so the sender can calculate the shortest path to the destination.
Once the routing path is finalized then sender node can access the destination.
Each intermediate node in the path is involved in the routing process and each
will be aware of the data transmission.

In any Bluetooth data transfer the nodes are not fixed
so any node can move from the network and new node can come up at any time. If
any node is added to the network then it finds its

Immediate neighbors and prepares its routing table. And this routing
table is send to all nodes that can be directly accessible. If any node wishes
to move out of the network then it send a withdraw message to their immediate
nodes. In both cases all nodes update their routing table accordingly. If any
node updates its routing table then inform their neighbors and send the routing
table to them. When a node send a packet to another node in the network if it
reaches correctly at the destination then it will send the acknowledgement. If
the sender does not get the acknowledgement before the timer turned off then
the route discovery process is repeated. Sender must send the same packet through
another shortest route if the current route does not exist. The path selection
is crucial and is to be selected depends on the shortest path criteria and load
balancing criteria.

 

VI.    
Applications of Proposed
Solution

With the development of Bluetooth technology, many Bluetooth devices
come into our living, such as Bluetooth earphone, Bluetooth home-network etc.
Recently, the Bluetooth technology is the fastest growing technology which
enables devices to connect and communicate. Data dissemination is the main
application intended to the Bluetooth network. We can send text messages as
well as picture messages to any Bluetooth enabled devices via Bluetooth communication.
Bluetooth is actually the replacement of traditional wired serial communication
in test equipment, GPS receivers and medical equipment. The popular use of
Bluetooth technology is wireless control and communication between any devices
with Bluetooth capability. The devices can be cell phone, mouse, keyboard,
cordless headset, camera, PDA, printer, computer etc. Bluetooth can also help
different devices to communicate with each other. For example, if you have a
phone, a PDA, and a computer and all the three devices have Bluetooth
capabilities, then with the support of appropriate software on each device you
can look up a phone number on your PDA and then place a call direct from the laptop
or PDA without touching your cell phone. Ad hoc networking and remote control
are the significant applications. Another attractive application is wireless
networking between  PCs in a confined
space where little bandwidth is required. By using Bluetooth communication
technology transfer of files between devices via OBEX is possible.

 

VII.    
Conclusion

In this paper, I have listed out the common shortcomings of
Bluetooth data transmission. Efficiency of connection establishment has been analyzed
and suggested a method to overcome the basic limitation of Bluetooth
communication that is the range constraint. With this new network, the range of
the devices that can be accessible is expanded. This expansion is done through
the enabled intermediate devices. When a device tries to connect to other
devices, first it finds the devices that can be accessed directly or
indirectly. Then it can establish a path to the destination through the
intermediate devices and forward the message.

 

 

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Magazine,
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