ABSTRACT on the joints and muscles and have

 

ABSTRACT

 

 Sugar mills have been instrumental in
initiating a number of entrepreneurial activities in rural area. It needs
quality management at all levels of activity to enhance
productivity and production. Attention is required on cost minimization and
undertaking by product processing activities. In earlier days farmers usually
harvested sugarcane in hand or with hand equipments. This usually took lot of
days and labour cost were hig. Hence, this project deals with the design and
fabrication of a low cost sugarcane cutting machine.This works on the principle
of transfer of rotational energy from one part of the machine to another part of
the machine. This uses a belt-pulley system to transfer its rotational motion
from one part to another. This machine can be operated at a much faster rate
and cheaper price. This work serves as a attachment to the tractor of small
size. Usually the power of these tractor are in the range of 18hp – 24hp. This
product uses the tractor which is readily available with the farmer.

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1.INTRODUCTION

        
Indian sugar industry, second largest agro-based processing industry
after cotton textiles industry in country, has a lion’s share in accelerating
industrialization process and bringing socio-economic changes in under
developed rural areas. Sugar
industry covers around 7.5% of rural population and provides employment to 5
lakh people.About 4.5 crore farmers are engaged in sugarcane cultivation in
India. Indian sugar industry can be a global leader provided it comes
out of vicious cycle of shortage and surplus of sugarcane, lower sugarcane
yield and lower sugarcane recovery The sugarcane harvesting is labour – intensive
which is done manually by various types of hand knives. Sugarcane workers can
easily get fatigued due to excessive stress on the joints and muscles  and have safety issues because of harmful
pests from plantations. As days passed by technology has simplified the work
and now they can harvest more than what they did earlier within specific period
of time. Modern farms and agricultural operations work far differently than
those a few decades ago, primarily because of advancements in technology, including
sensors, devices, machines, and information technology. Today’s agriculture routinely uses sophisticated
technologies.These advanced devices and precision agriculture allow
businesses to be more profitable, efficient, safer, and more environmentally friendly.
Due to this development farmers no longer have to apply water, fertilizers, and
pesticides uniformly across entire fields.This also saves time and does not
require more investment.

Adrash jain, Shashank kaine, Sirinivas ratod1has
developed a design and fabrication of small scale  sugarcane harvesting machine for harvesting
operation.Different  parts of machine is
mounted on strong chassis which consists the wheels that  are attached to this chassis so that it can
be moved in  the farm. The petrol engine
is mounted on the chassis which provides the power to the wheels  to move by means of gear and chain mechanism
and also provides power to the cutter. The shaft of the gear box and shaft  which is connected to the wheels  are connected by means of gear and chain
mechanism to provide variable speed. But it requires  more 
petrol consumption  and  takes more time  for harvesting.

N.M. Pach khande, Dhirajv.Rade Vikas, G.nagapure2
has developed the mechanization of smale scale sugarcane harvesting machine
different parts of machine will be mounted on the strong chassis the wheels
will be attached to chassis so that it can be moved in the farm. The machine is
pushed through the field manually toper form cutting action .The guides/arm  is provided in front of machine to lift
abruptly grown sugarcane The pulley is mounted on the shaft of the machine and
V belt is used in order to avoid slip factor. It requires more time due to
manual pushing.     

J Masute ,S.S.Chaudhri3has developed review paper
is to have proper understanding of different aspects of present harvesting  practices to reduce the efforts which  were put in by farmer in terms of money,
labour ,time, physical efforts for optimum performance.This system is
helpful  for small and big farms.

              Siddaling,B.S Ravikiran4 has
developed the project on design and fabrication of small scale sugarcane
harvesting machine. In this project fuel from tank is supplied to the engine
and power is generated to the shaft inside the engine .The driver sprocket
which is attached to the engine shaft rotates chain mechanism. The driver
sprocket connected to the longer shaft which is connected between two plumber
blocks and provides support to the shaft. The rotating bevel gear’s are in turn
connected to the cutter through vertical rods. It also using fuel and take long
time and it involved complex mechanism. It involves  complex mechanism and takes longer time and
more fuel usage.

Our ultimate aim is fulfilled when the model we
designed has successfully satisfies the needs of the farmers in giving their
best in harvesting and make more money.Improvement in technology came at a huge
cost. Due to this every farmer could not switch to a modern and simplified
agriculture. Though it was effective it was not efficient to the one who could
afford it. As our aim was to reduce the time of harvesting and increase the
profit, we have designed a low cost sugarcane cutting machine.

       
The low cost sugarcane cutting machine is way cheaper than the existing
machine that is used for harvesting the sugarcane. The machine designed is
manufactured as a attachment to the tractors.

ADVANTAGES

·        
Time saving as compared to manual harvesting.

·        
Cheaper than the
existing models.

·        
Easily affordable
by all classes of people.

·        
Simple in construction.

·        
Easy to handle.

·        
Maintenance is
easy and cheaper.

·        
It is portable.

·        
It can be used in low horse power tractor as
attachment.

DISADVANTAGES

·        
The efficiency is
low as compared to exiting model.  

·        
It can be used
only to cut the sugarcane and not to do other process in harvesting.

·        
The tractor
should be manually operated.

·        
The chance of
tearing of belt is high as the belt is in open space.

·        
The minimum
distance between two rows should be atleast 5 feet.

·        
It is profitable
only for large area of farming.

 

 

 

 

 

2. LOW COST SUGARCANE CUTTING
MACHINE:

 

             
This low cost sugarcane cutting machine gets its input power from the
tractor. The power from the tractor shaft is transferred to the shaft of the
machine by means of  PTO shaft. This
power take-off shaft is used to transfer the power from the shaft of
tractor  to the shaft of the machine. In
this mechanism the shaft of the machine is fitted with the primary pulley. The
cutting blades of the machine are connected to the secondary shaft by means of
bearing to the machine. These pulleys are connected by means of a belt. So once
the shaft is rotated the cutting blades gets rotated.

           
These rotating cutting blades are used for cutting the sugarcane in the
field. This low cost sugarcane cutting machine gets its input energy from the
tractor. The energy from the tractor shaft is transferred to the shaft of the
machine by means of  PTO shaft. This
power take-off shaft is used to transfer the power from the source to the
drain. In this mechanism the shaft of the machine is fitted with the primary
pulley. The cutting blades of the machine are connected to the secondary shaft
by means of bearing. These pulleys are connected by means of a belt. Importance
of this project lies in the very fact that it is cheaper and can be affordable
by all.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this project there are about three
different type of sections. Each has their own unique feature of work to do.
The sections are as follows:

 

i)    
Outer frame section

ii)   
Primary shaft section

iii)  
Secondary shaft section

              The outer frame is the important
and main system in the project. This section is the one which supports all the
other components of the project. This is to be designed in way that it can
withstand the weight of all the components and also the load which will be
exerted on the machine during the time of operation. This section will have the
surface to house all the components.

            The primary pulley section is the
section where the power from the tractor is entering the machine. This consists
of the primary pulley. This pulley is attached to the frame of the machine by
means of bearing which are housed inside the holder. Totally two number of
bearing are used in this section. One bearing is fixed in front of the pulley
and another at back side of the pulley. Thus these bearing allows the smooth
movement of the primary pulley.This section also has the PTO shaft. This shaft
is used to transfer the power from the tractor to the machine. This forms a
link between the shaft of the tractor and shaft of the machine. This has a
hollow space which is used to house the shaft at both the sides.This shaft has
a groove to correctly fit in the shaft and also pin which is used to lock the
hollow space with the shaft of machine as well as the shaft of the tractor.
This restricts the further movement of the PTO shaft.

            This secondary pulley section is
the section where the pulley and the blades are placed.       Totally two number of bearing are used
in this section. One bearing is fixed at top of the pulley and another at
bottom of the pulley. Thus these bearing allows the smooth movement of the secondary
pulley.

      This pulley is connected to the blades.
So as the pulley rotates the blades also rotate and thus  these rotating blades are used for cutting
the sugarcane in the field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.PERFORMANCE
OF SUGARCANE CUTTING MACHINE:

 

DIMENSION
OF THE MACHINE

 

 

 

Fig 4.8 CAD Diagram

 

·        
Length               :  120 cm

·        
Width                :   40 cm

·        
Height               :   55 cm

·        
Material used    :  
Cast iron

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the end of
the design, construction and testing, a satisfactory low cost sugarcane
cutting  machine having ideal mechanical
advantage and a power output was fabricated using available raw materials and
techniques.  Sugarcanes were cut
successfully in the field using this machine which was attached to the tractor.
This machine’s overall performance was confirmed to be efficient when compared
to already existing machine. The cost of production and maintenance is
relatively cheap.This machine is suitable for big or small farms.

 

 

 

 

4.CONCLUSION

 

In this project  a low cost sugarcane cutting machine is
designed using sugarcane unit as a small unit which being attached to tractors.
This machine cut the sugarcane in different fields using the designed blades.
It saves time and does not require more investment. This machine is suitable
for big or small farms. Thus a simple design and low cost sugarcane cutting
machine was fabricated. This machine does not require human labour. Thus it
reduces the dependency on human labour for sugarcane harvesting. This simple
design of the machine enables every person to operate it thus reducing the
requirement of highly skilful operator as required for the existing machine.
Thus efficiently reducing the labour cost for harvesting.

 

5.REFERENCE

1.     
Hurney,
A., B. Croft, D. Grace, and D. Richards. 2005. Final Report-SRDC Project
BSS123: Influence of Harvester Basecutters on Ratooning of Sugarcane. Available
at: www.srdc.gov.au. Accessed 6 March 2013.

 

2.      King,
N. J. 1969. Historical review of sugarcane mechanisation in Australia In                                   Proc . South  African Sugar Techologies  Association, 93-98. Durban, South
Africa:      South African Sugar
Association.

 

3.     
 Jakeway, L. A. 2003. Application of cane and
forage harvesters for biomass      fuel
recovery. ASAE Publication No.701P1103e. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.

 

4.     
Price,
R., R. Johnson, R. Viator, J. Larsenand A. Peters. 2011. Fiber Optic Yield
Monitor for a Sugarcane Harvester.Trans. ASABE 54(1): 31-39.

 

5.     
 Price, R., J. Larsen, and A. Peters. 2007.
Development of an optical yield monitor for sugar cane harvesting. ASABE Paper
No. 071049. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASABE.

 

6.     
Rípoli,
T. C. C., W. F. Molina Jr, and M. L. C. Rípoli. 2000. Energy potential of    sugar cane biomass in Brazil. Scientia
Agricola 57(4):677-681. Robertson, F. A., and P. J. Thorburn.

 

7.     
Spargo,
R.,et.al. The development of the Australian chopped sugar cane harvester.
Trans. ASAE 18(5):806-810.

 

8.      Widden,
M.,et.al. A new automatic tractor guidance systemJournal Of Agriculture
Engineering Research17(1):10-21.