Einstein 1905 there were a plethora of experiments

Einstein was greatly motivated by the thought of the unknown and the curiosity of the capabilities of the human race. These aspirations are and always have been shared among many scientists looking into the future of the human race. Although Einstein’s fellow scientists were striving for the same goal, they were leary of his discovery of the Theory of Special Relativity due to its magnitude. Which brought the million dollar question of, is this true? The beauty of science is that we do not necessarily ask this question of someone, but we direct our question toward mother nature and the test results to support the claims. Einstein, in an offensive maneuver, did just that. Einstein based his theory solely on test results that formed his knowledge. In due course, the truthfulness of his theory has been tested relentlessly. For example, by 1905 there were a plethora of experiments performed On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, that Einstein knew supported his findings. With all these efforts, no generally accepted experiment has been found to disagree with the existence of special relativity.2. Supporting Findings Pre- 1905 There were three main experiments prior to 1905 that really substantiated the Theory of Special Relativity. The first comes from an English astronomer in the 1700s named James Bradley. Bradley discovered a small correction between the direction that a telescope was pointing at a star because of the motion of Earth’s orbit. This is referred to as “Star Aberration.” This is the concept that if you point a telescope at a star and do not make the correction to line up the direction of the telescope, then the star will appear to follow a ellipse over the time span of a year. The ellipse is minimal at just potentially 42 arc seconds. This is a small difference but this is what Special Relativity predicts. It is actually a very important finding because the minute amount proves one of the arguments against this experiment wrong. This flawed conjecture is that the special frame of reference is referred to as the “ether,” a fixed variable with respect to Earth. After those findings were published, another scientist named Airy wanted to conduct experiments that would see if “Star Aberration” was consistent if the telescope was filled with water. This was perplexing to him because light travels at a slower speed in water. In no surprise, Ariy’s results were consistent with “Star Aberration.” Another revalent experiment was conducted by Armand Fizeau, a French physicist, to measure the speed of light. Fizeau was the first to measure the speed of light while using laboratory technics. In Fizeau’s experiment, he was trying to measure the speed of light while having light move against the flow of water and simultaneously comparing those results to the light moving with the flow of water. These results were proven earlier by Fresnel and is just what Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations and special relativity later predicted.Einstein has been criticised for not putting references into his famous 1905 paper. Nevertheless, as Robert Graham has said, “he was aware of the most significant result that supported his ideas, namely the null outcome of the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887.” 3. Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887 In 1887, James Maxwell made a revolutionary prediction and that was the existence of electromagnetic waves. This was a major breakthrough in which Maxwell’s equations included a fixed constant of,  c = (?0?0)-½ , this was for the speed of the electromagnetic waves, or the speed of light. This brought out the idea that the speed of light isn’t always the same, it is relative to your everyday movements. Given this truth, Maxwell’s speed of light must therefore be the speed in one particular frame of reference, which physicists called the ether. Michelson now was solely trying to measure the speed of the ether v. Michelson, now trying relentlessly to measure this so called ether, ran into a multitude of problems. To start, the speed of light is about 300,000 km s-1 and whatever our speeds relative to the ether it should be at minimum 30 km s-1, due to the orbital speed of the Earth. To measure this, Michelson needed to measure the speed of light to an accuracy of about 10 km s-1. This accuracy was impossible for the technology in the 1880s. This all being true, he came to a very pivotal realization. He necessarily didn’t need to measure everything down to the very minute difference, but he just needed to measure the directional difference between the speed of light and the ether. This could be accomplished with a round trip experiment. He conducted the experiment and found something astonishing, which is that there was no difference in speed. This also proves the ether doesn’t exist which is a key component of Special Relativity.  4. Time Dilation Another key concept for Special Relativity is time Time Dilation. This has to be one of the most crucial and dramatic predictions of Special Relativity to date.  This implies that clocks in a frame of reference are moving with respect to you appear to run slow. You nor I will ever be moving at the speed of light but elementary particles will be constantly. A good place to start to see this is the Muon Experiment. Muons are elementary particles similarly to massive electrons. They are created by collisions in particle accelerators and by the same process in cosmic ray showers when particles decay. Muons are among the particles that travel from several kilometers high in the atmosphere to the surface of the Earth. Since they reach the earth, you can hear in this radiation detector that records the natural background radiation. Muons have a short half-life of 2.197 ?s. A cluster of muons travelling at 0.99 times the speed of light will only go 650m before half of them have broken down. In the atmosphere, muons are created in a shower at a typical height of 10 km and will need 15.3 half-lives of time to reach the ground.Special Relativity provides an explanation. Given muons travelling at 0.99c, the time dilation factor is about 7. Their half-life observed in our frame of reference is longer by 7.09 and hence according to relativity the time needed for muons to reach the ground is not 15.3 half lives but only 2.18 half-lives. Another relevant experiment is the Rossi and Hall Experiment. The experiment was done in 1941 and the goal was to measure muon fluxes 2 km high and at the base of a mountain. The goal is not to study height difference of only 2 km but for their muon speeds of 0.994c. In theory, the reduction should have been only a factor of 1.26, where without time dilation the reduction would be a factor of 8.5. The results were consistent with their predictions, but since there has been convicting evidence against it. For example  in 1979,  Bailey et al at a CERN accelerator reported a similar experiment with CERN generated muons of speeds 0.9994c. That was observed in the lab to have 29.3 times the muon rest lifetime, completely consistent with time dilation. One of the most important things in relativity is that no bodies can travel faster than the speed of light. In 1977, nobel prize winner Sheldon Glashow and collaborator Sidney Coleman demonstrated this in more depth. The presence of very high energy cosmic ray photons reaching the Earth is proof of the existence of an upper limit of the speed of light. Their argument was that photons decay by pair production into electrons and positrons. If the upper limit to the speed of electrons differed from c by a small amount, then high-energy photons would decay in nanoseconds and never travel any significant distance. 5. ConclusionSpecial Relativity is apart of the framework of modern physics today and is pivotal to most structuring of ideas and theories. Although some of the results of Special Relativity are counter-intuitive, now what Einstein set to do now seems apart of the natural order. He realized that the incompatibility between Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity & Magnetism should and could be resolved by re-writing the old mechanics and not the new Electricity & Magnetism.(Reid) This rewrite is like a cub going into a grizzly’s cage and saying that he needs to leave. Einstein successfully kicked out the grizzly and 100 years of subsequent experiments have proven it was the right thing to do.