Environment depletion which has caused the climate change.

Environment and forestry sector have been an
interesting topic to be discussed since United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) lifted up climate
change and Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism issue.  Forest was mentioned as one of carbon cycle
chains which has potency to mitigate climate change. As
one of greenhouse gases, the carbon emission contributes to the ozone depletion
which has caused the climate change.

As the third biggest tropical rain forest area,
Indonesia would be likely has a big role on world climate change mitigation. In
addition, Indonesia’s strategic development goals, known as Nawacita (Nine
Agenda Priorities) contains transitional way for realizing priorities and
long-term changes, aligning Indonesia’s aim as a politically sovereign and
economically self-reliant nation with strong basic of culture identity.  These priorities are in line with the
national commitment to climate change resilience.  Government put climate change adaptation and mitigation
integrated as cross-cutting priorities of the National Medium-Term Development
Plan.  Based on INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia,
2015) which submitted on Conference of Parties (COP) 21
Paris 2015, it stated that Indonesia is on transition to a low carbon future by
involving to the effort to prevent 2°C increase in global temperature. 

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Indonesia
effort to mitigate climate change was going forward to develop REDD during
UNFCCC in Bali in 2007, where the idea has also been added with forest degradation
issue. REDD is a scheme to hamper the
climate change by giving compensation to the developing countries in protecting
their forests. Simply said, REDD is
a scheme of carbon trading using forests as its carbon storage. This
carbon trading scheme has been debated since Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica
elaborated the proposal for reducing emission from deforestation in the climate
change discussion in 2005.

Since UNFCCC in Bali,
Indonesia developed various strategies related to climate change issue. In
order to endure the implementation of the strategies in 2008 Indonesian
Government established The National Council on
Climate Change (DNPI) through presidential regulation 46 of year 2000. The DNPI
directly chaired by President (President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono) and has been
given significant authority to advise and oversee the implementation of both
climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In the process of running
the DNPI, President was helped by the Vice Chairman of the Coordinating
Minister for People’s Welfare and the Coordinating Minister for Economic
Affairs. It also included many other government departments, such as the
Environment, Finance, Forestry, Energy and Mineral Resources, and Agriculture
departments as members of the DNPI. 

The
main function of the DNPI is to formulate policies, strategies and programs;
implement and monitor implementation; and strengthen Indonesia’s position in
regards to issues related to climate change. The council has eight working
groups that focus on different aspects of climate change adaptation and
mitigation, technology transfer, finance, forestry and post-Kyoto aims. To
strengthen the role of the DNPI, the members of the working groups come from
both government institutions and non-government entities such as
universities and the private sector. 1

In
2009, Indonesia voluntary pledge to reduce emission by 26% on its own efforts,
and up to 41% with international support. Since that time, Indonesia has
disseminated policy instrument related to climate change, such as the national
action plan on greenhouse gas emissions reduction as stipulated in Presidential
Regulation No. 61/2011 and greenhouse gasses inventory through Presidential
Regulation No. 71/2011.  Besides those
policy instruments, in 2011 Government of Indonesia established The REDD+
Taskforce through Presidential Decree 25/2011. The REDD+ taskforce was designed
in order to develop REDD+ in Indonesia and implement the Letter of Intent on
“Cooperation on reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation” between the Government of Indonesia and Norway, signed in May
2010. 

Different
with the DNPI, The Taskforce was not chaired by President; it was chaired by
the head of the Presidential Work Unit for Development Monitoring and Control
(UKP4) of which the Taskforce forms part. The Taskforce conducted ten working
groups which were each led by one government and one non-government representative. The
main objection of the Taskforce was to create an institutional and legal
framework for REDD+ in Indonesia. The function included designing formulation
of a national strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation
and forest degradation and preparing for the implementation of mechanisms for
REDD+ in Indonesia. 2

            Political change in 2014 brought a
new system related to climate change resilience.  A new Indonesian President, Joko Widodo,
decided to merge both The DNPI and the REDD+ Taskforce into The Ministry of
Environment and Forestry in 2014.  The
Ministry of Environment and Forestry became the National Focal Point on Climate
Change. The merging of those three institutions was based on Presidential
Decree No. 16/2015. As the further step the Ministry of Environment and
Forestry issued regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry No.
18/2015 included establishment of 
Echelons I Unit named Directorate General of Climate Change (DJPPI) to
handle the climate change issues, as well as forest and land fires in Indonesia
(A Glance at
Directorate General of Climate Change, 2015).  Milestone of Indonesia’s political instrument
related to climate change issues is shown by the figure II.1.

 

1 https://theredddesk.org/countries/actors/national-council-climate-change-indonesia

2
https://theredddesk.org/countries/actors/redd-taskforce-indonesia