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Evaluating nutrient and mineral contents and developing bamboo shoot chips protocol in EthiopiaResearch proposal for partial fulfillment of Master of Science on Tropical and International Forestry Scholarship ProgramSubmitted by: Berhanu Sugebo (BSc), EthiopiaSubmitted to: U.Gottingen (Germany)Contact addressE-mail [email protected]: +251946549747September, 2017iTable of Contents1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11.1. Background and justification ……………………………………………………………………………………. 11.2. Problem statement ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11.3. Objective of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21.3.1. General objective …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21.3.2. Specific objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22. LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………… 23. RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES ……………………………………………………………………… 33.1. Bamboo species will be selected to study …………………………………………………………………… 33.2. Description of study area ………………………………………………………………………………………… 33.3. Sample collection and parameters ……………………………………………………………………………. 43.4. Nutrient content determination of both bamboo species shoot …………………………………….. 43.5. Moisture content determination both species from each location …………………………………. 43.5.1. Ash content determination of both species from each location …………………………………. 43.5.2. Fiber content determination of both species from each location ……………………………….. 43.5.3. Protein content determination of both species from each location ……………………………. 53.5.4. Fat content determination of both species from each locations ………………………………… 53.5.5. Carbohydrate content determination of both species from each locations …………………. 53.6. Mineral element analysis of both species from each locations ………………………………………. 54. EFFECTS OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON BAMBOO SHOOT CHIPS QUALITY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55. DATA ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66. WORK PLAN AND TIME SCHEDULE …………………………………………………………….. 6REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71Evaluating nutrient and mineral content and developing bamboo shoot chips protocol in Ethiopia1. Introduction1.1. Background and justificationBamboo is woody grasses species and belonging to family Poaceae. In the world more than 1500 bamboo species are found. Ethiopia has only two indigenous bamboo species, its name called high land bamboo (Yushania alpina) and low land bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica). The two species grow in different altitudinal range. Yushanina alpina grow 2200-3500 masl and Oxytenanthera abyssinica grow 500-1700 masl. No indigenous bamboo species grow in Ethiopia below 500 masl and between 1700-2200 masl. From 2007 in Ethiopia more than 23 bamboo species were introduced, the species that can grow in the altitude range of two indigenous bamboo species can’t grow (Yigardu et al., 2008).Bamboo shoots are most commonly consumed food in some Asian countries. The shoots have high content of human health important nutrients and minerals such as, protein, carbohydrates, low fat content, vitamins, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron (http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/679073, Bhargava et al.,1996 and Xia, 1989) . The fiber content in bamboo shoot is higher than most of the commonly consumed vegetables (Nirmala et al., 2011). The fiber in bamboo shoots consists of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin and classified in nutrient detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The fiber is inert, has no calories. Dietary fibers reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer and various gastrointestinal problems (Anderson et al., 2009; Lattimer and Brennan et al., 2012).Dendrocalams asper and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii bamboo species are among well adapted bamboo species in Ethiopia in different locations. Both bamboo species shoots are common food in China and South East Asia countries and they are prepare their shoots in to different types of food like, bamboo Candy, bamboo chetney, bamboo chuky and bamboo crackers. The foods made from these species are good in taste as well as from nutritional point of view (Sood et al., 2013).These both bamboo species shoots have great value in Ethiopia to solve food security problem and improving human health condition. Ethiopia has diverse agroecologic condition and many parts of country is suitable farmers to plant Dendrocalamus asper and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii bamboo to use bamboo shoots for consumption at the time of bamboo shoot emerging and to use it for long time by preservation method.1.2. Problem statementCurrently in the world improving food security is a serious problem, because of increasing number of population and natural environmental hazards. Especially in developing countries many peoples are undernourished. Also Ethiopia is one of developing country and improving food security is one of serious issue in the country, because of increasing number of population at alarming rate, drought, improper land2use management and increasing urbanization. In Ethiopia a few crops and vegetables are used for food, so that is not enough to feed large number of population. Therefore, creating other valuable food types like bamboo shoot food is very important. In Ethiopia, chips from potato is sold in road sides, hotels and bars, but there is no another option to make chips from different health improvement species like bamboo shoots. In Ethiopia the use bamboo shoot for food purpose is not kwon practically, because of bamboo shoot nutrient and mineral content study is limited. In Ethiopia there are more than twenty three introduced bamboo species including Dendrocalamus asper and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii bamboo species from China, India and Malaysia. Even though Dendrocalamus asper and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii bamboo species shoots are very popular dishes in host countries, but still in Ethiopia didn’t use bamboo shoots as food. Bamboo shoot protocol for different food types is not known and bamboo shoot processing to food procedure is not developed well. Bamboo shoots mineral composition and nutrient content is also different in location and species to species.1.3. Objective of the study1.3.1. General objectiveTo evaluate nutrient and mineral content and develop bamboo shoot food protocol from two introduced bamboo species in Ethiopia.1.3.2. Specific objectives? To evaluate nutrient and mineral content of two introduced bamboo species of bamboo shoots from different location in Ethiopia.? To investigate the effects of processing conditions on the quality production of bamboo shoot chips.2. Literature ReviewIn the world many countries use bamboo shoot to improve food security; especially China and South East Asia countries use bamboo shoot for daily consumption. Bamboo shoots are consumed as fresh, dried and fermented in various ways like pickle, boiled, mixed with various vegetables, pork, fish, beef, etc. Shoots of almost all the species are consumed as food (Bisht et al., 2015).According to International Scholarly Research review in 2014, bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibers, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries.Bamboo shoots are rich in nutrients and essential minerals. Bamboo shoot contain average protein content 2.65g/g fresh weight, low in fats (0.26-0.94%), sugars (2.5%) low calories, dietary fiber 2.23 to 4.20 g/100 g fresh weight of shoot in some species,3the K content in bamboo shoots ranges from 232 to 576 mg/100 g fresh weight. Composition of nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and dietary fibers may vary considerably among different species and also on agroclimatic conditions (Xia, 1989; Nirmala et al., 2011, and Feleke, 2013).Protein content is highest in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii bamboo species and carbohydrate content is highest in Bambusa tulda bamboo species. Dendrocalamus asper and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii species shoots are nutritionally better potential for the necessary massive commercial production of shoots (Nirmala et al., 2011) .Therefore this study is rationally focus on nutrient and mineral content and developing bamboo shoot chips protocol from introduced bamboo species of Dendrocalamus asper and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii in Ethiopia from different location.3. Research methodologies3.1. Bamboo species will be selected to study1) Dendrocalamus asper: is tropical and sub-tropical dense clumping species native to Southeast Asia. Its culms are used for heavy construction and shoots are consumed as vegetable. It grows in elevation between 400-1500m.2) Dendrocalamus hamiltonii: A plant of the moist tropics, it may grow well at areas with annual day time temperature ranges of 20oc-29oc. It prefer annual rain fall in range of 1800-3600mm, but may tolerate 700-4500mm.young shoots are consumed as vegetable.3.2. Description of study areaThe data of the study will be collected from seven locations of Ethiopia. The locations are:-Holeta, Gambo, Jimma, Chagni, Wondo Genet, Hirna, Debrezeit. Descriptions of each the locations are given below:- No Locations Location/latitude, longitude Altitude (masl) Temperature(oC ) Min Max Annual rain fall (mm)1Holetta 9º 00′ N and 38º30′ E2400 622 1o442Jimma70 40’N and 360 50 E178013.226.215303Gambo 7° 26′ 00″ N38° 52′ 00″ E2450152012504Chagni100 57’N 360 30′ E158313.228.617255Wondo Genet7o19’N,38 o38’E192011.526.213726Hirna 9°13?N 41°06?E 1,76316209207Debrezeit 08° 44’N,38o 58’E18558.928.3980Source: www.eiar.et, accessed on May, 2016.43.3. Sample collection and parametersSample of bamboo shoot will be collected from seven former planted locations. Five up to ten day young bamboo shoot will be harvested by using random complete block design (RCBD) from three clumps of each species on each location. From each species and each location 5kg bamboo shoot will be collected. The shoot will be stored in a dark cool ice box and transported to laboratory. Bamboo shoot will be sorted, cleaned, peeling off sheath and slicing internal soft parts of shoot in to pieces for determination of nutrient and mineral contents and to study bamboo shoot chips protocol of each species in different treatment.3.4. Nutrient content determination of both bamboo species shootThe sample of 250gm bamboo shoots from Denderocalamus asper and Denderocalamus hamlitonii species and from each location will be dried in oven dray for 24 hour at 80oc. After cooling each sample will be grinded finely and sieved and stored in refrigerator for determination of nutrient and mineral content.3.5. Moisture content determination both species from each location% M.C = after drying for 24 hour at 80oc.3.5.1. Ash content determination of both species from each locationFor the determination of ash, clean empty crucible will be placed in a muffle furnace at 600 C for an hour, cooled in desiccator and then weight of empty crucible will noted (W1). One gram of each of sample will be taken in crucible (W2). The sample will be ignited over a burner with the help of blowpipe, until it is charred. Then the crucible will be placed in muffle furnace at 550 C for 2-4 h. The appearances of gray white ash indicate complete oxidation of all organic matter in the sample. After ashing, furnace will be switch off. The crucible will be cooled and weighed (W3). Percent of ash will be calculated by the following formula:-% Ash =3.5.2. Fiber content determination of both species from each locationThe crude fiber content of the sample will be determined by using (AOAC, 1995).% crude fiber =Where:W1= weight of crucibleW2= initial weight of sample and crucibleW3 = final weight of sample and crucible53.5.3. Protein content determination of both species from each locationThe micro kjedahal method (AOAC, 1990) involve digestion, distillation and titration was used to obtain the crude protein content of samples.% Crude Protein = 6.25* x %N (*. Correction factor) Titer value (T) = final biuret reading – initial biuret reading.% crude protein= ( )Where:S = Sample titration readingB = Blank titration readingN = Normality of HClD = Dilution of sample after digestionV = Volume taken for distillation0.014 = Milli equivalent weight of Nitrogen3.5.4. Fat content determination of both species from each locationsDry extraction method for fat determination will be implied. Fats will be determined by intermittent Soxhlet extraction apparatus.3.5.5. Carbohydrate content determination of both species from each locationsThis was determined by difference i.e.% carbohydrate = 100-(% protein+%fat+%fiber+%ash+% moisture)3.6. Mineral element analysis of both species from each locationsThe organic matter of the samples will be destroyed by burning the samples at a temperature of 450 0 C for 4 hours (Dry ashing method) in the furnace (Bock, 1979). Calcium, Mg, and Fe will be determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (210 VGP Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer USA, 1992). The concentration of P and S will be determined by Ultraviolet (UV) Spectrophotometer (UV-T80 +UV/VIS Spectrometer PG Instrument Ltd) and Na and K will be determined using flame photometer (ELICO SL 378, India).*** Replication for all treatments will be three times.4. Effects of processing parameters on bamboo shoot chips quality6The sample of 300g of the same sized sliced bamboo shoots from each two species and from each location will be boiled at different temperature and at different time interval.Treatments? Boiling at 140oc for 10 minutes? Boiling at 100oc for 15 minutes? Boiling at 100oc for 20 minutes? Boiling at 75oc for 30 minutes? Boiling at 60oc for one hourThe nutrient and mineral content of shoot for both species and location will be analyzed at the above mentioned methods. Then comparing nutrient and mineral content lose by heat and time effect. From the boiled shoot by comparing nutrient and mineral content of the highest rank 1st, 2nd and 3rd treatment of both species will be used for quality comparing of bamboo shoot chips. The chips quality comparing is based on taste, flavor, color, texture and nutrient content and mineral contents of chips.Procedure will be used to process bamboo shoot chips from Denderocalamus asper and Denderocalamus hamlitonii bamboo species are:Bamboo chips will be prepared by mixing 300g of boiled bamboo shoot with l00g of boiled potato and other additives of food 20g red chili, 10g table salt,10g Ethiopian traditional spices,25ml vegetable oil and 100ml pour water will be added, then properly mixing and heating for 30 minutes at 60oc .Then after will be stored at proper container. Sensory evaluation will be conducted on nine point hedonic scale to evaluate the overall acceptability of prepared samples. Sensory attributes will be included color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall quality of the developed products. Sensory evaluation will be done by 10 semi-trained judges in the age group 25 to 40 years comprising of professionals.5. Data analysisData will be analyzed by one way ANOVA (SPSS version 20) at confidence level of (p?0.05)6. Work plan and time scheduleNoActivities will be doneYearMonthFebruaryMarchAprilMayJuneJuly01Reconnaissance survey of bamboo plantation site.2020×02Management of bamboo plantation site for shoot grows2020×03Bamboo shoot harvest2020×04Laboratory work2020××05Thesis writing2020×7References Anderson, J.W.; Baird, P.; Davis, R.H. 2009. Health benefits of dietary fibers. Nutrition Reviews, 67, 188-205. AOAC,1990.Oficial methods of analysis.15thEdn.,Association of official analytical chemists, Washington, DC., USA. Bhargava, V., Kumbhare, A., Srivastava, and A. Sahai., 1996. “Bamboo parts and seeds for additional source of nutrition,”. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 145–146. Bhatt,p., K. Singh, and A. 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