History Judaism originated in Israel. Around 2000 BCE, Abraham received a vison from God instructing him to move from Mesopotamian City in Ur to Haran then Canaan. God gave a vision to Abraham to raise a nation (Chosen People) in a special land. God gave Abraham the idea of a Promise Land. The promise between God and Abraham reaches out to every member of the Jewish faith. This authorized God as the creator of all things and the chosen people would honor God`s covenant. Jews represented the chosen people. God has picked Abraham to bless him and give him “Great Nation”. The promise land was made. these two ideas of the chosen people and the promised land are the foundation of the covenant that God made with Abraham. Beliefs Jewish beliefs focus the idea of one God. God controls the universe with justice and honor. God is immaterial and indivisible. God is liable for all creation on earth. Orthodox Jews accept that “The Torah is from Heaven”. The Orthodox view is that the written and spoken Torah together is an evolving communication of God`s will. The Torah itself has not been changed in 3000 years of Jewish History. Orthodox Judaism rejects that humans can change God`s teaching to suit their needs and will. Orthodox Jews obtain their Jewish Practices and Laws but adapted modern dress. The Reform movement believed that both the written and spoken and written Torah are human creations and that God allows different generations to have different perspective of the Torah. This group abolished the divisions in synagogues that separated men and women. Female rabbis are granted in this movement. Is in the middle of Orthodox and Reformed Judaism. God showed the Torah TO people and THROUGH people. Conservative synagogues obtain traditional ways of services and conduct them mostly in Hebrew. While maintaining the traditions and laws the same, this branch allows some things to be flexible in the interpretations if the law. Reconstructionist Judaism makes Jewish traditions purposeful in today`s world (Mixture of tradition and change). Reconstructionist Judaism says “tradition has a vote but not a veto” saying that the view in Judaism is a “work in progress” rather than finishing the product. Jewish Creed of faith/ the golden rule Shema says ” Hear. O Israel, The Lord is our God, the Lord is One” Torah- Deuteronomy 6: 4-9. “That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn it” — Talmud, Shabbat 31a Every religion has a golden rule and the most common golden rule is treat others the way you want to be treated. In Judaism, the golden rule represents to love thy neighbors and that what the whole Torah is about. Sacred Texts/stories The Torah included five books of Moses (Pentateuch) these stories are the Creation of the world, God`s covenant with Abraham and the chosen people, Exodus from Egypt, Revelation on Mount Sinai, the Israelites in the desert, Recap of going to the Promise Land. There are three parts to the Tanakh. The Torah, Nevi`im (prophets), and the Ketuvim (writings) The Story of Abraham and Isaac God wanted to know if Abraham would obey him. God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac who he loved unconditionally on an altar. An angel told Abraham to stop the sacrifice because he showed that he obeyed God The Story of the Prophet Moses Moses saw a bush on fire who turned out to be God. God told Moses to free his people (Israelites) from slavery in Egypt. After Moses freed his people, he went up on to a mountain and received the 10 Commandments from God. Rituals Circumcision is the initial rights for new born babies. Usually witnessed by family/ community members and called a Brit Milah. Bar and Bat Mitzvah A Bar Mitzvah is when a young Jewish boy is ready to take on responsibilities as a young adult. This ceremony happens when a boy turns the age of 13. A Bat Mitzvah is when a 12 year old Jewish girl is prepared to take on responsibilities. The name Bat Mitzvah means daughter in command. Bar Mitzvah means son in command. Naming a Child Usually chosen in remembrance of a deceased relative. This shows the importance of Jewish Faith. Marriage Kiddushin means dedication and sanctification. Conducted by a Rabbi. Does not need to marry within the faith. The couple stands under a canopy called Chuppah, a symbol of the home they will share. The couple drink from a glass full of wine that has been blessed. At the end of the service, the groom crushes the glass under his foot. This gesture is to remind the couple that they will have good and bad moments that they will face together. Divorce Judaism allows divorces. To be divorced you have to issue a GET. GET is a certificate for a divorce. If a GET is not issued then they can`t be divorced. Death The dead body can`t be cremated. The burial has to be taken as soon as possible. SHIVA is a seven-day mourning period following the funeral. The mourners eat a small meal called the meal of consolation prepared by friends and neighbors. This meal symbolizes the need to continue with living and begin the healing process from the death. Symbols Star of David This symbol was thought to be associated with the shield of David. This symbol represents the will to survive. The star of David gives Jews an identity and let them become proud of who they are. The star became more closely recognized with Judaism when it was adopted by Zionists as a marker of Jewish nationality. Celebrations Yom Kippur involves fasting and isolating yourself from your pleasures. Yom Kippur helps relfect and repent previous sins. The two days of Rash Hashanah is Yom Kippur. On the saturday before Rosh Hashanah, a forgiveness service is held at the synagogue. This day requires a 25 hour fasting and prayers of repentance. Rosh Hashanah Celebrates new year and the creation of the earth. This takes place on the first and second day of Tishrei. It begins the ten- day period of repentance and ending with a festival which is Yom Kippur. Sukkot This is known as the Fests of Booths. “Booth” is a small hut (sukkah) where all meals are eaten. Hanukkah This is referred to the “Jewish Alternative” to Christmas. Festival of lights celebrates the victory of the Maccabeans over Syrians. A small army had recovered the temple in Jerusalem. As part of celebration, each candle is lit regularly for eight days. Role models A Rabbi is a Jewish Scholar. The meaning of Rabbi is teacher. The Rabbi is not only viewed as a spiritual leader but a counselor, role model, and educator. Many Jewish Ceremonies can be taken place without a Rabbi. Most Rabbis are guys but some movements or types of Judaism, girls are allowed to become Rabbis. Salvation and enlightenment If you do good then things will be better for you. If you do not choose good then sin with be your partner. But sin can be controlled, you can control evil temptations. “If you do good, won’t there be special privilege? And if you do not do good, sin waits at the door. It lusts after you, but you can dominate it.” (Genesis 4:7) Differences of religion Judaism Recognized that Jesus was good teach and not Messiah and denies that Jesus is God. While Catholicism includes the Old testament and accept that Jesus is the Messiah. Jesus was God in the Flesh/ Became human to sacrifice our sins but Jews do not believe that. Catholicism Both Believe in one God. Both sacred books had the Old Testament and believe in the existence of Heaven and Hell. God has a special plan for them.