Introduction visually. It is an art which is

Introduction

 

Photography is the translation of a
communication visually. It is an art which is crafted keeping in mind the
tonality of the message to be communicated to the audience. Every so often,
photographs are chosen as a way and mean to explain as compared to words. The
mere reason for the same is that a photograph is more impactful than words. It
is easier to comprehend what a photograph is trying to communicate as compared
to words. Photography dates back to the 1800s when the first ever photograph
was taken in the year 1826 by Joseph Ni?ephore Niépce (black
inside cover, 1936). Ever since it has been regarded as the most impactful way
to pass on a communication.

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Fashion photography is used extensively by the
players in the fashion industry to glamorize products and present the brand in
the most visually appealing manner. Be it fashion magazines or advertising
campaigns published by brands, fashion photography surely creates an impact and
creates references. The shots in the fashion photoshoots become trendsetters in
their own way and are followed by people on a global scale. It is the mood of
the photograph which makes the impact in the minds of the audience, hence it is
imperative to take into the consideration the elements that make up a perfect
fashion photograph and the detailing to the photograph. Black and White
photographs happen to be a favorite amongst the photographers. It is observed
that the most renowned photographers use the Black & White technique to
make the photograph seem appealing but it is important to understand the
nuances which make up a perfect Black & White photograph and how impactful
it seems to the audience.

 

 

Context

 

“When you photograph people in color, you
photograph their clothes. But when you photograph people in Black and white, you
photograph their souls!” (Cox, 1990). Black & White photography used
in fashion photography, creates a better impact in the minds of the audience as
compared to color photography. People often perceive that colored photographs
bring the photos to life but in reality, it is the black & white
photographs which reflect the actual life forward. It has been learnt that
there are some golden rules that need to be followed while opting for Black
& White photography. It is very important to create a contrast in the Black
& White photograph. Contrast within elements in the photo can be created,
for example: by the usage of hard light such as sunlight. The contrast will
cast shadows at the right places, hence depth will be seen in the photograph.

 

In order to draw the attention of the audience,
the photographer must introduce geometrical shapes in the frame. Since there is
an absence of multiple colors in the photograph, geometric shapes will attract
the attention. Shapes in the clothing of the model, how the model is posing,
leading lines, are all perfect examples of how to create shapes in the
photograph.

 

Textures in the frame creates an illusion of
their presence in real. If the photographer pays attention to the details in
the photograph and introduce texture, such as texture of the hair, the skin or
the fur clothing that the model is wearing, it will create an impact, as
compared to a colored photograph where the photographer will brighten the
colors and airbrush the skin to make it look even.

 

All these elements brought together can help a
photograph achieve a high quality and aesthetically correct Black & White
image as it is taught that one must prepare the elements taking into
consideration if the image will be processed as colored or Black & White.

 

 

Aim &
Objective

 

Basis the studies read, there have been studies
done in favor of Black & White photography and for Color Photography. The
hypothesis drawn for this research is mentioned below:

‘Black
& White (Monochromatic photographs create stronger and lasting impact than
colored images)’ (Issue Information, 2016).

 

 

Methodology

 

In order to prove the hypothesis, a mixed
approach to quality and quantitative study will be conducted and combine
numeric findings and information gathered to conclude. Firstly, Focus Group
study will be conducted in order to find out which technique of photography creates
a better impact in the mind: Black & White or Colored photographs. A focus
group is also preferred over normal groups as they yield results much faster.
In batches of 10-15 members in a group, composing of people from different
professions to come together, a research will be conducted where they will be
shown 5 samples of photographs, each in two versions: Black & White and
Colored. Each member of the focus group will have to identify which one seems
better to them, vote for it and give a validation as to what elements stand out
in the one they voted for, this way it will be easier to also establish the
elements which draws the attention of the audience when they see a photograph.

 

Personal interviews will be conducted with 5
renowned photographers who happen to also excel in the field of Fashion
photography. Personal interview will help in the research as the information
will be collected from pioneers in the field. They will be questioned on the
technique which best suits them, their take on Black & White photography
and how to create an appealing Black & White photograph.

 

Case studies in renowned books on photography
will also be read in order to understand what the experts have to say when it
comes to Black & White photography. There have been ace photographers who
have created their space in the Black & White photography technique. Case
studies will be read on them. Also, many fashion brands have also experimented
with this photography technique and have been received well by the audience.
Popular brands such as Balenciaga (Spring Summer, 2014 ad campaign), Dior (ASAP
Rocky in Dior Homme’s Spring Summer, 17 Campaign), Celine (Resort Campaign,
2016), Saint Laurent (Spring Summer, 2017) are amongst various others who have
excelled in the Black & White photography technique.

 

Questionnaire will also be conducted online. A
sample size of 100 will be taken into consideration to understand the
preference of Black & White photography as compared to Colored photography.
Numeric findings from the questionnaire will help in the derivation of the
percentage of the sample size preferring Black & White over colored.

 

All these above mentioned four types of research
methods will aid in concluding the stated hypothesis to be tested positive or
negative.

 

 

Possible
Limitations

 

While conducting the research, below mentioned
are the possible limitations pertaining to the course of research methodology:

While the qualitative research methods adopted
such as focus group, personal interview and case study might help in getting
in-depth research on the origination and appeal of Black & White
photography, the results may not be accurate as they are purely based on one’s
inferences. The sample chosen for the focus group study as well as the
questionnaire will only be confined to the United Kingdom. There might be a
chance that the proof of the hypothesis may differ on a global scale. On the
other hand, the quantitative method used in the form of questionnaire may
provide numerical interpretations but the answers provided by the sample might
be biased. One of the other possible limitation is that the questionnaire may
seem too long to the sample and they might not answer all the question with
total concentration.

 

 

Research
Approach

 

In order to prove the hypothesis stated above,
Pragmatic Paradigm will be applied as there is a mix of different qualitative
(focus group, personal interview & case study) and quantitative
(questionnaire) research methods (Us.sagepub.com, 2018). Apart from that, the
constructive worldview will be applied to the research. Constructivism is a
research approach based on qualitative research methods since there is a lot
usage of qualitative research methods in the hypothesis stated above,
constructivism research approach will be well suited, as it focuses on
open-ended questions, brings personal opinion in the research and also helps in
interpreting the data.

 

 

Ethical
Considerations

 

With regards to the research to be conducted,
there will be some ethical considerations to be followed. Below mentioned are
the considerations:

For qualitative research methods, it is
imperative that the confidentiality and authenticity to be maintained for the
focus group chosen in order to ensure that there is no infringement of personal
information given out for the sample size. The process for answering the
questions and the context of the research will be highlighted in detail to the
sample size in order to ensure most efficient results are achieved from them.
For personal interview, it is important that a legal declaration form should be
presented in front of the photographer and the size should be signed by them
before