Study War of Granada begins1487: Siege of Malaga1491:

Study Guide: Granada WarColor Key:Red- DatesGreen- PlacesBlue- PeoplePurple- Key terms———————————————————————————————————————Chronology:1469: Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella1482: War of Granada begins1487: Siege of Malaga1491: Treaty of Granada signed1492: War of Granada ends1502: Isabella mandates compulsory Catholicism within Castile———————————————————————————————————————Discuss how the War of Granada was a dynastic, territorial, and religious war. (causes and course of fighting)Dynastic:Ended the Nasrid dynasty (1232-1492), the rule of Granada. 21st Nasrid ruler, Muley Hacen, caused a civil war that caused Boabdil’s rebellion (see Role of Taxes). Ended Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that had been occupied during most of the 8th century.Gained positive relations and an alliance with Portugal as a result of the marriage between Joanna of Castile and King Alfonso V of Portugal. The Moorish occupation also took place in parts of Portugal, so the end to the Reconquista in Spain also benefited Portugal. As a result, Spanish and Portuguese relations were at a high.In 1485, Boabdil was exiled from Albayzin by his uncle, El Zagal, as a result of his actions causing a civil war in Granada. With El Zagal now in rule, Boabdil arrived in Spain to ask for aid from Ferdinand and Isabella. They allow him to leave instead of keeping him captive in order to continue the chaos and unrest in Granada.  Territorial:Wanted to unify Spain under the catholic monarchy, and having the large portion of Granada would bring more land and more people. provinces of Almeria, Granada, Malaga and some parts of Jaén and Cadiz. This area is one of the steepest in Europe thanks to its mountains and mountain ranges, forming an authentic natural fortress very difficult to take militarily with the existing means at that time.Land border between Granada and Castile was constantly changing because of raids, truces, tributes, and alliances between nobles on the border of each. The conquest of Granada ended this constant land shift and finally settled the border between the two. Religious:Originally, the war was mainly for conquest. During the course of the war it gained religious motivation to act as justification for the war and to encourage spaniards.Archbishop Cisneros led an initiative that ordered the conversion of Muslims and burned arabic manuscripts.This caused a Muslim revolt, and they had to choose between baptism, exile, or execution. Alhambra Decree of 1492 expelled Jews that were not converso Marranos (converted Jews that practiced Judaism in secret)End to the Reconquista of Spain; the campaigns in Portugal and Spain by Christians to regain territory captured from the Moors occupying the Iberian Peninsula. Since Granada was never Spain’s to begin with, the ‘reconquista of Granada’ is actually known as the ‘conquista of Granada’.———————————————————————————————————————What were the immediate and long-term causes?Immediate:Abu Hasan attempts to retake Alhama, but fails.Granada refused to follow Spanish rules. Would not learn Spanish or follow rules, religious and general. Granada launched surprise attack on Zahara while truce of 1478 was in effect; breaking the truce and hurting their land was a large cause.Long term:1250, the final piece of the Iberian Peninsula was held by the Emirate Muslims. The Reconquista was at its end, after fighting to regain territory from 1000 to 1200; slowly, Muslim states were being taken back by Christian monarchs.The presence of Muslim rule in a Catholic Kingdom troubled King ferdinand and Queen isabella, as well as catholics in Spain.———————————————————————————————————————What was the role of significant leaders on both sides of the conflict?Boabdil: Son of sultan Abul-Hasan Ali, came to claim himself ruler of Granada, as he was power hungry.Muhammad XII was the son of Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of the Emirate of Granada whom he succeeded in 1482, as a result of both court intrigue and unrest amongst the population at large. The constant unrest in the state of Granada was contributed to by Boabdil and his relatives.After being exiled from Granada, he fled to Ferdinand and Isabella, who in turn released him to return to Granada to cause more problems for the state rather than holding him prisoner. Constantly, new leaders appeared to the fight for rule over Granada, which was a large distraction to the war. When Boabdil returned, he found that the leader was killed by the Catholic Monarchs and Granada was in disarray. He requested help from the Kingdom of Fez, the Turks, and the Sultan of Egypt, but received none. The coastline was destroyed, so no aid was available.Muhammad XII soon sought to gain prestige by invading Castile. He was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483. Muhammad’s father was then restored as ruler of Granada, to be replaced in 1485 by his uncle Muhammed XIII, also known as Abdullah ez Zagal.In 1491, Muhammad XII was summoned by Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, which was besieged by the Castilians. Eventually, on 2 January 1492, Granada was surrenderedMuhammad XII was given an estate in Laujar de Andarax, Las Alpujarras, a mountainous area between the Sierra Nevada and the Mediterranean Sea, but in October 1493 he crossed the Mediterranean to Fes, Morocco, accompanied by an entourage of 1,130 courtiers and servants. Large numbers of the Muslim population of Granada had already fled to North Africa, taking advantage of a clause in the articles of surrender that permitted free passageEventually converted to Christianity after the war and became an ally to the Spanish.King Ferdinand:Ferdinand fought on the Castilian and Aragonese fronts in order to impose his authority over the noble oligarchies, shifting his basis of support from one kingdom to the other according to the intensity of the danger.Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the clearly guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled. Some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style. This was also practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand IIPersonally provided naval collaboration, guns, and financial loans for the war.After the siege of Malaga, Ferdinand refused the surrender they offered, since he had already attempted to compromise with them twice before. He then punished them for their resistance, turning them into slaves and burning the renegades.Had access to artillery for use in the war because of his access to French and Burgundian experts from his previous wars, so they were able to create more artillery and destroy the Muslims.Queen Isabella:When Isabella came to the throne in 1474, Castile was in a state of despair thanks to her brother Henry’s reign. It was not unknown that Henry IV was a big spender and did little to enforce the laws of his kingdom. It was even said by one Castilian denizen of the time that murder, rape, and robbery happened without punishment. Because of this, Isabella needed desperately to find a way to reform her kingdom. Due to the measures imposed, historians during her lifetime saw her to be more inclined to justice than to mercy, and indeed far more rigorous and unforgiving than her husband Ferdinand.reform came during the cortes of Madrigal in 1476 in the form of a police force, La Santa Hermandad (the Holy Brotherhood). While 1476 was not the first time that Castile had seen the Hermandad, it was the first time that the police force was used by the crown. During the first year of her reign, Isabella established a monopoly over the royal mints and fixed a legal standard to which the coinage must approximate. By shutting down many of the mints and taking royal control over the production of money, Isabella restored the confidence of the public in the Crown’s ability to handle the kingdom’s finance.During the war, Isabella noted the abilities and energy of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and made him one of the two commissioners for the negotiations. Under her patronage, De Córdoba went on to an extraordinary military career that revolutionised the organisation and tactics of the emerging Spanish military, changing the nature of warfare and altering the European balance of power.———————————————————————————————————————Explain the role of the following to the course and practice of the war:Knighthood:3 types of Knights: (caballeros)Royal Knights: nobility with close relations with the King. Equipped with hauberks, long swords, spears, javelins, and axes. Noble Knights: (lower) nobility (also called caballeros hidalgos). Equipped with padded armor, javelins, spears, sword, and shield.Commoner Knights: only able to afford a horse. Equipped with same as Noble Knights.Knighthood was under sole control of King or count of castile because of charters with the crown.Military Service:Peasants: (peones)Poorly equipped with only bows and arrows, spears, and short swords. Mainly contained enemy troops until cavalry arrived and blocked enemy infantry from harming knights. Equipment included longbows, crossbows, leather armor, helmet, and shield. Mercenaries:The majority of the Christian army was composed of Castilians, while Aragonese and mercenaries made up a small portion.Fighting amongst fellow men was common, since mercenaries fought for whichever army paid the most. It was common for these fighters to switch sides frequently to gain more money.Many kings did not have enough soldiers at their disposal, so mercenaries were used to fill the gaps. These men were norse, flemish, frankish knights, moorish archers, and berber cavalry.Taxation:Muley Hacen, ruler of Granada from 1464-1485, refused to pay the annual tax to the Catholic Monarchs in 1481 and seized Zahara, causing a civil war.This simple refusal to pay taxes ultimately sparked a civil war, leading to the Granada War.Durling the Islamic administration, christians and jews were allowed to keep their religions by paying a tax; otherwise they would be imprisoned.Heavy taxes had to be paid by non-christians in the new christian hierarchy.Granadans paid triple the taxes that Castilians paid in order to support the army and defenses. After Emir Abu Hasan Ali imposed these taxes, it only added to his unpopularity and the civil disrest. Despite the Granadans anger, the taxes supported the army, somewhere around 7,000 horsemen to rid of the Christian revolts in Granada.———————————————————————————————————————Explain the role of the following to the course and practice of the war:Logistics:Christians diligently built a series of roads through the mountains to supply their troops with food and supplies.The Christian army was almost completely Castilian; Aragonese and foreign mercenary participation was minimal. Of the Castilian army, Andalusia contributed far more troops than the other territories, with much of its population conscripted into the war. The nobility provided the majority of the expensive cavalry.The ten year war was a series of campaigns changing throughout the seasons to better fight the enemy depending on the weather and time of year. Winter was for rest and restocking, while the campaign was relaunched in the Spring. Capturing of Malaga, the main seaport of Granada, was the main goal of the Castilians in 1487. Because of this, the coastline would be blocked off, and Granada would not receive any aid.1489, capturing of Baza was a long, but effective, siege. This was the most important city of al-Zagal’s, as it had incredibly strong defenses. The Christian army was unable to make great use of their artillery because of the defenses, and had to split the army and use money.Tactics:Christian army had access to bombards and cannons from French experts from Ferdinand’s previous wars. The Moors only had access to these if they retrieved them from a won fight with the Christians.By 1495 the Castilians had 179 pieces of artillery.Hit and run guerilla calvary tactic from CastiliansTercio: Spanish infantry organization composed of 3,000 was soldiers subdivided into 10 segments made up of different weapon types. Mixed pikes, firearms, swords, musketeers, and arquebuses.Pikemen made a pike square with swordsmen, while the firearms were in the inside of the square. Long range arquebuses were easily reorganized and moved to defend and offend.Politically, many nobles insisted on controlling their own forces, but Ferdinand and Isabella were still able to exercise a large degree of control in directing the army as a whole. The Granadans, meanwhile, were beset with civil war, preventing the establishment of a unified command.Castilians also employed a large number of supporting men; a huge force of workers were mustered in 1483 to destroy crops and pillage the countryside rather than engage directly in battle.Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, the “Great Captain,” developed the tactics, training, and organization that made Spanish infantry almost unbeatable for 150 years.Organization of the war:Organization of Tercio: See Tercio———————————————————————————————————————Discuss the role and importance of women in the War of Granada.Queen IsabellaIsabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon’s marriage resulted in the political unification of SpainReorganized governmental system, brought crime rate low, and relieved debt in SpainHer brother Henry left Castile in despair with crime running unpunished. She was unforgiving towards these crimes and decreased the crime rate dramatically as a result of her views towards crime.Established police forces consisting of locals, paid for by taxesSupported Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the New World in 1492When Isabella came to the throne in 1474, Castile was in a state of despair thanks to her brother Henry’s reign. It was not unknown that Henry IV was a big spender and did little to enforce the laws of his kingdom. It was even said by one Castilian denizen of the time that murder, rape, and robbery happened without punishment. Because of this, Isabella needed desperately to find a way to reform her kingdom. Due to the measures imposed, historians during her lifetime saw her to be more inclined to justice than to mercy, and indeed far more rigorous and unforgiving than her husband Ferdinand.reform came during the cortes of Madrigal in 1476 in the form of a police force, La Santa Hermandad (the Holy Brotherhood). While 1476 was not the first time that Castile had seen the Hermandad, it was the first time that the police force was used by the crown. During the first year of her reign, Isabella established a monopoly over the royal mints and fixed a legal standard to which the coinage must approximate. By shutting down many of the mints and taking royal control over the production of money, Isabella restored the confidence of the public in the Crown’s ability to handle the kingdom’s finance.During the war, Isabella noted the abilities and energy of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and made him one of the two commissioners for the negotiations. Under her patronage, De Córdoba went on to an extraordinary military career that revolutionised the organisation and tactics of the emerging Spanish military, changing the nature of warfare and altering the European balance of power.Used religious motivation to unite her forces and create national spirit and a common enemy. The war then became more crusade-like, and had full support from Spain.Created a corps of field messengers and medical service to aid in the war; supplied tents for wounded, being one of the earliest examples of a field hospital.Aided in Seville in 1477, stayed more than a year to help reshape the damaged city and resolve crime.Made war preparations and acted as Ferdinand’s general while he fought on the battlefield———————————————————————————————————————What role did treaties and truces play in the war?Treaty of Granada (1491)Signed November 25, 1491 by Boabdil, sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella. Ended the Granada war that started in 1482. Also known as the capitulation of granada, provided a short truce to the Catholic monarchs of Spain. Laws would be preserved as it was before the war, and no judgement should be placed upon the Granadans. Mosques and other religious buildings were to remain exactly as they were before the war. Talavera and Captain Tendilla aided to resolve any fighting by negotiating with the Muslims. Guaranteed a set of rights to the Moors, including religious tolerance and fair treatment in return for their surrender. This was eventually ignored, causing mass conversions (see Religious Consequences)Archbishop Cisneros was summoned to court, and the monarchs would pardon any Muslim rebels on the condition that they would convert to Christianity.Treaty of Bulls of Guisnado: Isabella of Castile agreed to be heir to the throne.Henry IV, her brother, attempted to revoke this treaty so that Joanna would be the heir, but this ultimately failed. Instead, she married with King Alfonso V to increase relations with Portugal. ———————————————————————————————————————In what ways (boundary, dynastic, economic, social, religious, cultural, and demographic) did the War of Granada create important effects on the land, governments, and people of the Iberian Peninsula?Land:Boabdil was offered rulership of AlpujarrasSouth of Spain was unified and had access to the Iberian Peninsula (gained Granada)Motivation for war included the need to make the Holy Land largerFerdinand commissioned conquistadors to explore and conquest the New World, resulting in the destruction of the native civilizations of the Americas. Brought European diseases, new crops and supplies, and Catholicism, to the New world. Christopher Columbus’s expedition to the New World was funded and he discovered the AmericasFresh from the defeat of Muslim Granada, the Spanish were propelled by the impetus of this victory towards the New World not primarily to trade, or even to colonize, but to conquer and only then to convert those who remained alive to what in their view was the one and only true faith.A 2016 study found that the manner of the Reconquest has persistent effects on the Spanish economy to this day.The authors show how territory quickly re-taken during the Reconquista was given to nobility, whereas territory slowly re-taken was more equally distributed and settled. Lands dominated by nobility have worse long-term development outcomes and greater inequality.Cultural:New genre, romances fronterizos, developed about the war stories, romanticizing the war and heroes.John Dryden writes drama, The Conquest of GranadaDia de la Toma de Granada- January 2, holiday to celebrate war successNew style of architecture, Plateresque, combined the muslim and christian styles into one. Ginés Pérez de Hita wrote an early example of historical fiction, Guerras civiles de Granada, a romantic account of the war that emphasized chivalry and heroism on both sides. A number of stories and songs appear to have been sponsored by the royal government to help steel morale for the long struggle; Sobre Baza was a poem written in 1479 encouraging persistence in the long siegeReligious:Treaty would not force anyone to change religion.Archbishop Cisneros led an initiative that ordered the conversion of Muslims and burned arabic manuscripts.This caused a Muslim revolt, and they had to choose between baptism, exile, or execution. Alhambra Decree of 1492 expelled Jews that were not converso Marranos (converted Jews that practiced Judaism in secret)1492 also marks the year of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in the Alhambra Decree as an effort to religiously cleanse the population. Most Jewish people were given four months to either leave the country or convert to Christianity. If neither option was chosen, execution would be the crime. Approximately 200,000 Jews chose to convert while around 40,000-100,000 chose to leave. The Jews who converted or fled are called Sephardic Jews. Although the property and wealth of the Jews were confiscated after exile or execution, Spain still wasn’t able to fully heal its Empire after the long Reconquistion. Initially granted freedom, the Muslims in Granada soon found themselves in the same situation as the Jews, but this occurred later in the year 1502. After years of Christians’ forceful and violent means of conversion under the leadership of Cisneros, Muslims organized a revolt in 1499 to which led the Catholic Kings to remove all their freedom and decree their final expulsion or conversion.Social:The new Christian hierarchy demanded heavy taxes from non-Christians and gave them rights, such as in the Treaty of Granada (1491) only for Moors in recently Islamic Granada. On July 30, 1492, all the Jewish community — some 200,000 people — were forcibly expelled. The very next year the Alhambra decree under Archbishop Hernando de Talavera (1492) dismissed the Treaty of Granada and now the Muslim population of Granada was forced to convert or be expelled. In 1502, Queen Isabella I declared conversion to Catholicism compulsory within the Kingdom of Castile. Many local officials took advantage of the situation to seize property.Discrimination towards Jews and Muslims by Catholic SpaniardsMaking things more complex were the many former Muslims and Jews known as Moriscos, Marranos Conversos who shared ancestors in common with many Christians, especially among the aristocracy, causing much concern over loyalty and attempts by the aristocracy to hide their non-Christian ancestry. Those that the Spanish Inquisition found to be secretly practicing Islam or Judaism were executed, imprisoned or expelled. Nevertheless, all those deemed to be “New Christians” were perpetually suspected of various crimes against the Spanish state including continued practice of Islam or Judaism.New types of Jews and Muslims: Moriscos, Muslims forced to convert to catholicism. Crypto muslims who practiced in secrecy. New christians, jews converting to christianity. Crypto jews practicing in secrecy. ———————————————————————————————————————