The arises in an individual in the workplace

The purpose of the study is to understand the relationship between resilience and burnout among the IT professionals. Resilience is the ability to adapt or cope with the adverse situations whereas burnout is an existential crisis arises in an individual in the workplace where he or she experiences exhaustion, cynicism or depersonalization and professional efficacy (Singh,Suar, & Leiter, 2011) If the individual has the ability to cope well when faced stressful situations, there are possibilities of avoiding the experience of burnout.  ResilienceThe word resilience derived from the Latin word “resilire” which means “to leap back”.  It is defined in the Oxford Dictionary of English as being “able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions” (Soanes & Stevenson, 2006). Rutter defined resilience as “an interactive concept that is concerned with the combination of serious risk experiences and a relatively positive psychological outcome despite those experiences” (Rutter, 2006).  Lazarus (1993) stated an example of elasticity in metals, with a resilient metal bending and bouncing back (instead of breaking) when stressed. Most researchers agree that, for resilience to be shown, both adversity and positive adaptation must be evident. The term adversity, according to Luthar and Cicchetti (2000) stated that adversity “typically encompasses negative life circumstances that are known to be statistically associated with adjustment difficulties” and positive adaptation has been defined as “behaviourally manifested social competence or success at meeting stage-salient developmental tasks” (Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000). “Protective factors which modify or alter a person’s response to some environmental hazard that predisposes to a maladaptive outcome” (Rutter, 1987) The definitions of resilience have same core understanding, looking at positive outcomes following important life challenges. Those challenges have high chances to pull down normal development and affect healthy functioning. Ryff and singer (2003) defined resilience as “maintenance, recovery, or improvement in mental or physical health following challenge. Masten (2001) says that there are two factors involved in judging the resilient responses which a person must first go through a significant threat or risk that has high possibility to produce negative outcomes. The second part of resilience requires judgement of a favourable or good-outcome that makes the individual overcomes the negative outcomes into positive.Burnout  One of the most prominent definitions that present the general nature of burnout is given by Maslach and Leiter (1997) “Burnout is the index of the dislocation between what people are and what they have to do. It represents erosion in value, dignity, spirit, and will – an erosion of the human soul. It is a malady that spreads gradually and continuously over time, putting people into a downward spiral from which it’s hard to recover.” Burnout is a type of existential crisis in which work is no longer a meaningful function. Workers who experience burnout may feel their job as tedious, redundant and insignificant. The term burnout came into use in 1970s in the United States especially in the human services. The relationship that people have with their work and the difficulties that arise which ruin the relationship is a significant phenomenon in modern age. The MBI-GS defined burnout as a crisis in one’s relationship with people at work. The pioneers behind the concept of burnout are Freudenberger and Maslach who studied burnout on different population.In the 1980’s the work on burnout shifted to more systematic empirical research. This work was more quantitative in nature, utilizing questionnaire and survey methodology and studying larger subject populations. A particular focus of this research was the assessments of burnout, and several different measures were developed.According to Maslach (1986) the three key dimensions of burnout, are an overwhelming exhaustion, feelings of cynicism and detachment from the job, and a sense of inefficacy and lack of accomplishments. Exhaustion (Maslach, 1986) refers to the component represents the basic individual stress dimension of burnout, referring to feelings of being overextended and depleted of one’s emotional and physical resources. Cynicism (Maslach, 1986) refers to the interpersonal context dimension of burnout. It refers to a negative, callous, or excessively detached response to various aspects of the job. Professional efficacy (Maslach, 1986) refers to reduced efficacy or accomplishment represents the self-evaluation dimension of burnout. It refers to feelings of incompetence and a lack of inefficacy.IT sector:               Information Technology (IT) in its wide scope of sense to include all aspects of computing technology. IT, as an academic discipline, is concerned with issues related to advocating for users and meeting their needs within an organizational and societal context through the selection, creation, application, integration and administration of computing technologies. Information technology is an enormously vibrant field that emerged at the end of the last century as our society experienced a fundamental change from an industrial society to an “information society.” From its inception just half a century ago, computing has become the defining technology of our age, changing how we live and work. Computers are integral to modern culture and are a primary engine behind much of the world’s economic and social change. Therefore, individuals who work in the respective fields related to IT are called as IT professionals (Lunt et al, 2008)                 Burnout is extensively studied on individuals with stressful occupations such as doctors, nurses, educators, social workers, and lawyers but studies on burnout has however neglected the fast developing Indian software industry where jobs are always strenuous and demanding (Singh, Suar & Leiter, 2011). It is important for the employees to get back from strenuous working conditions which affect their physical, mental and emotional health. Resilience being one of the coping strategies will help the employees to bounce back from everyday stressful situations further leading to burnout.  Background/Premise of the studyThe previous studies help us understand the relationship between resilience and the way it helps the individuals to bounce back from the adverse situations that they are faced at different occupations. The study suggests that, individuals with better resilience have better coping skills and are able to bounce back from stressful situations (Yilmaz, 2011). Kotz & Lamb (2012) stated that personality factors such as consciousness and agreeableness found to have significant relationship between the dimensions of burnout. Whereas resilience was found to have significant relationship among two dimensions of burnout namely; cynicism/depersonalization and professional efficacy. Luthar (2000) in his studies says that individuals with high intelligence have high resilience and individuals with average or low intelligence have low resilience. The study also found that individuals with high intelligence are more sensitive to issues in environment. Therefore, intelligence is not considered as one of the protective factor. Singh, Saur, & Leiter, (2011) stated that software companies were neglected where jobs are always strenuous and demanding.Statement of the Research ProblemThere is a significant relationship between resilience and burnout among IT professionals.Rationale of the studyThe present study will help us understand the relationship between the individual’s level of resilience and their predispose tendency towards burnout among IT professionals. Various studies have shown the antecedents and consequences for the stress leading to burnout but there are lacks of studies that give us the relationship between resilience and burnout in the occupation that is being noticed as experiencing chronic stress (Singh, Suar, & Leiter, 2011). Therefore, this study will help us understand the risk and positive adaptations that the employees will face in the organization and whether the positive adaptations help the individuals to cope better towards strenuous working conditions. Significance and scope of the present study  Burnout is extensively studied on individuals with stressful occupations such as doctors, nurses, educators, social workers, and lawyers but studies on burnout has however neglected the fast developing Indian software industry where jobs are always strenuous and demanding (Singh, Suar & Leiter, 2011). It is important for the employees to get back from strenuous working conditions which affect their physical, mental and emotional health. Resilience being one of the coping strategies will help the employees to bounce back from everyday stressful situations further leading to burnout. Therefore, the study will identify the level of resilience that will help adapt towards stressful working conditions.   The study will help in identify whether interventions on resilience will reduce the predictions of burnout. Further scope for research can be in the area of level of resilience influencing recruitment process in an organization for those individuals who can cope well in stressful situations.  It is more important in organizations to understand individual’s organization behavior, organization commitment, coping strategies and further interventions can be developed to enhance resilience for the employees working and predictions of burnout can be studied by relating it to various variables such as motivation, locus of control, job satisfaction and suitable intervention strategies can be developed. Review of LiteratureTheoretical frameworkMichael Rutter’s , 2006In 2006, Rutter defined resilience as “an interactive concept that is concerned with the combination of serious risk experiences and a relatively positive psychological outcome despite those experiences” (Rutter, 2006). Based on various empirical researches that Rutter studied in order to understand resilience, shows that individual differences occur not because of any personality traits rather genetic effects that influence resilience. In order to understand resilience in individuals, the individuals should have experienced risk and then dealing effectively to bounce back with positive outcomes. Also, it is not just the personal factors that influence but also environmental situations that makes difference among individuals to bounce back. His research studies also state that, it is not possible for an individual to be resilient at all the times in all situations across the lifespan. Since Rutter stated that there are individual differences in the level of resilience which depends on the protective factors such as a child being adopted from neglected parents and improvising the parental style to avoid the risk. Rutter also says that exposure to low levels of risk rather completely avoiding them will help the individuals to better resistance and coping skills.Norman Garmezy, 1991Garmezy (1991) defined resilience as, “not necessarily impervious to stress. Rather, resilience is designed to reflect the capacity for recovery and maintained adaptive behaviour that may follow initial retreat or incapacity upon initiating a stressful event” According to O’Leary, (1998) the protective factor model of resilience says there is an interaction between protection and risk factors, which decreases the chances of a negative outcome and moderates the effect of exposure to risk. This model of resilience is derived from developmental literature and systems theory. Accoding to Bonanno & Ungar, (2004) It indicates that these protective factors enhance positive outcomes and healthy personality characteristics despite unfavourable or aversive life circumstances. According to Ungar (2004),The protective factors identified included emotional management skills, intrapersonal reflective skills, academic and job skills, ability to restore self-esteem, planning skills, life skills, and problem-solving skills (Ledesma, 2014). Therefore, employees with protective factors present tend to be more adaptive towards the stressful situations and avoid the indications of burnout. All though many studies show the antecedents and consequences for job burnout but the theory progress in the concept is limited. The initial articles were written by Freudenberg (1975), a psychiatrist working in an alternative health care agency, and by Maslach (1976), a social psychologist who was studying emotions in the workplace. Most of the studies are based on studies the two influential job stress models: (a) demand–control model (DCM; Karasek, 1979) and (b) effort–reward imbalance model (ERI model; Siegrist, 1996). According to the models, the basic assumption is that job demands increase stress/burnout when certain job resources are lost. According to Maslach and Leiter, The MBI–GS comprises of three subscales which are Exhaustion (Ex), Cynicism (Cy) and Professional Efficacy (PE). The exhaustion component in the MBI–GS is generic; i.e. without direct reference to people as the source of those feelings as in the MBI-emotional exhaustion subscale. In a similar vein, cynicism reflects indifference or a distant attitude towards one’s work in general, rather than towards recipients of one’s services. Finally, professional efficacy covers a broader scope than personal accomplishment because social and non-social aspects of occupational accomplishments are included. Essentially, it assesses the employee’s expectations of continued effectiveness at work. In a manner similar to the original MBI, a high degree of burnout is reflected in high Ex and Cy scores and in low PE scores. At the other end of the continuum, ‘engagement’ is being defined as an energetic state in which the employee is dedicated to excellent performance at work and is confident of his or her effectiveness (Schutte,2000).Review of previous studies Yilmaz (2017) studied Resilience as a strategy for struggling against challenges related to the nursing profession. The profession that faces stressors like role conflict, work overload, conflict with doctors, competing demands, death, lack of time, quality care and many more that cause negative and stressful situations. Results of the study indicated that resilience help the nurses to cope better with the negative and stressful situations in their work environment and maintain a healthy psychological functioning.Mealer and Jones et al (2012) studied highly resilient nurses identified spirituality, a supportive social network, optimism, and having a resilient role model as characteristics used to cope with stress in their work environment. ICU nurses with a diagnosis of PTSD possessed several unhealthy characteristics including a poor social network, lack of identification with a role model, disruptive thoughts, regret, and lost optimism.Kotz and Lamb (2012) in South Africa, studied the influence of personality traits and resilience on burnout among customer services representatives in a call centre. The sample consisted of 187 customer services representatives. The big five personality factor, resilience scale and Maslach’s burnout inventory was given. Results indicated that the two of the personality factor consciousness and agreeableness had significant relationship between the dimensions of the burnout. Whereas resilience was found to have significant relationship among two dimensions of burnout namely; cycnicism/depersonalization and professional efficacy. Pankaj, Saur and Leiter (2011) studied the antecedents, consequences and buffers of job burnout among software developers in India. 372 software developers were given the questionnaires for data collection. Results indicated that individuals experiencing more role ambiguity, role conflict, schedule pressure, irregular shifts, group noncooperation, psychological contract violation, and work–family conflict are at a greater risk of job burnout. The most important antecedent for job burnout was found to be work-family conflict.Laura and Victor (2003) in California studied the relationship between the optimism, pessimism, coping on antecedents of stressors on burnout. 82 information service employees were being studied and the results were interpreted using multiple regression. The result indicated that lower optimism, higher pessimism, lower control coping increased depersonalization and exhaustion during chronic stress situations. Optimism, pessimism, and coping moderated chronic stress on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but not personal accomplishments.Conceptual framework Personality characteristics like low levels of hardiness, poor self esteem, an external locus of control, and an avoidant coping style typically constitute the profile of workload, control, reward, community, fairness and values are the major factors found to be related to burnout.The conceptual premise for this research study is that individual low on resilience will have a higher susceptibility to burnout in their occupation.Research gapThough there are many researches that have been studied on resilience and burnout independently over years, for different occupations and populations. There is no established relationship between the two found in the literature. In the Indian context as well the review of literature shows a dearth of any published work in the area.Research questions What is the extent of the relationship between resilience and dimensions of burnout among IT professionals?Is there a gender difference in resilience and burnout among IT professionals?