jackass penguin, endemic to southern Africa, is the only member of the
Sphenisciformes now breeding in Africa. Its breeding distribution extends from
Sylvia Hill, South West Africa (Namibia), to Bird Island, Algoa Bay, South
Africa. The non-breeding range extends from Sette Cama, Gabon, to Inhaca
Island, Moçambique. Jackass penguins uaually do not go far off the shore (Shelton, P.A., et al, 2010). The Galápagos penguin molts
twice a year before breeding; all other penguins molt once a year. Galápagos penguins do not migrate far, so they
can feed their chicks after the chicks fledge. Gentoo Penguin is the long-tailed penguin in the genus Pygoscelis, their swim speed is the higher than
emperor penguin (Sato, K. et al, 2010).
of Extinction of penguins, especially emperor penguins:
Emperor penguins are considered near
threatened and their populations are expected to decline rapidly in years to
come. They are heavily dependent on sea ice; therefore, they are sensitive to
changes in sea ice concentration due to global warming. Penguins play important roles in ecosystems; serve
as food for predators such as leopard seals and seabirds in cold areas, along
with foxes, leopards, and even crabs in warmer climates. If Emperor Penguins were to go extinct, the predators are affected.
Some of their predators include Killer Whales, Leopard Seals, and the Southern
Giant Petrel. If the penguins went extinct these
predators would either
must find other food resources or they may also go extinct.
The Antarctic continent is warming faster
than anywhere else, and therefore, sea ice along the western Antarctic
Peninsula is shrinking in size. The loss of sea ice is harming Emperor penguin
chicks and adults. When sea ice breaks up before their chicks have matured and
grown their waterproof feathers, chicks that are swept into the ocean are
likely to die. For adults, the loss of sea ice can lead to lower food
availability, ultimately results in death.
Global greenhouse gas emissions are
harmful to penguins. Industrial fishing is harmful as well. Large-scale
commercial fisheries deplete the penguin’s food sources, Oil spills, marine
pollution, diseases, are also harmful. These
waddling birds are under threat from the growing krill industry. Krill is a
keystone species in the Southern Ocean and directly or indirectly affects every
species that lives in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.