There health concerns. Additionally, the overlooking of depression

There is an existent
lack of understanding about clinical depression among adolescents aged 16-21.
An. Thapar, Collishaw, Aj. Thapar (2012) state that unpopular depressive
disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognized.  The incidence, notably in girls,
rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year
prevalence rate exceeds 4%, showing that adolescents are notably vulnerable to
the disease. The gravity of the issue is more extreme than what it
currently seems because people tend to ignore depression as a sickness and
leave the person who has depression be.  The strongest risk factors
for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure
to psychosocial pressure. This problem is serious because mental health is
equally just as important as physiological health. Most people tend to overlook
mental health just because it is something less tangible. If overlooked or left
untreated, further complications may even lead to self-degradation, self harm,
or even suicide. The same is stated by the Teen Mental Health Organization.  Additionally, WebMD (2018) reported that
depression may also lead to various other physiological complications like
anxiety and panic disorders, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
(The Link Between Depression and Other Mental Illnesses, para. 1).

 

            Unipolar depressive disorder is a common mental health
problem in adolescents worldwide, with an estimated 1 year prevalence of 4-5%
in mid to late adolescence. Depression in adolescents is a major risk factor
for suicide, the second-to-third leading cause of death in this age group.”
(Thapar et al. 2012, p. 2). This further supports the researcher’s claim that
there is truly a danger in the lack of understanding of depression. Failure to
identify and deal with it risks the contractions of various additional mental
health concerns. Additionally, the overlooking of depression also poses a
threat to one’s physiological health as well. This is supported by the journal
of the Canadian Mental Health Association. “Poor mental health is a risk factor for chronic
physical conditions. Additionally, people with serious
mental health conditions are at high risk of experiencing chronic physical
conditions as well.” (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2004, para. 5).

 

            Countless stigmata are held against people who suffer
from depression. For instance, people may view those who suffer from mental
illness as unpredictable, erratic individuals. Florez (2003) even stated that
it has often been proven that stigmatization and prejudice are the main reasons
as to why many people do not seek help or postpone seeking help until it is too
late. One of the most common sources of the stigmatization is prejudice. “Prejudice, which is fundamentally a
cognitive and affective response, leads to discrimination, the behavioral
reaction.” (Corrigan & Watson, 2002, para. 4).  However, all these stigmata are not
necessarily true. Goldenberg (2014) states that
“when a patient goes to my clinic with a mental health concern, I usually find
out the medical causes in a relatively short amount of time”.  Goldenberg’s claim shows that with proper
professional help, depression can be understood and tackled with appropriate
action.

 

            There are widely
accepted reasons as to why these stigmata form. The stigma which exists on the
people who perceive mental health patients negatively is called the social
stigma.  Social
stigma as defined by Psychology Today
writer Dr. Graham Davey is characterized by “prejudicial attitudes and
discriminating behavior directed towards individuals with mental health
problems as a result of the psychiatric label they have been given.” (Davey, 2013, para. 2). Crisp
et al. (2000) discovered three key points. The most commonly held belief was
that people with mental health problems were a danger to society – especially
those who displayed schizophrenia, alcoholism, and drug dependence. Secondly, people believed that some
mental health problems such as eating disorders and substance abuse were self-inflicted. Lastly, respondents believed
that people who suffered from mental health problems were generally difficult
to talk to. People tended to hold these negative beliefs regardless of their
age, regardless of what knowledge they had of mental health problems, and
regardless of whether they knew anyone who had a mental health problem.

 

            Corrigan and Watson (2002) wrote
that “stigmata regarding mental illness seem to
be widespread by the general public in the Western world. Studies may suggest
that the majority of citizens residing in the United States and many Western
European countries have stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness.” (par.
5). The same study also claims that not just the public but even medical
professionals in various health-care institutions hold stigmata against mental
illnesses. Moreover, the presence of a social stigma yields a so-called “self
stigma.” It is defined by Link, Cullen, Struening and Shrout (1989) as
“the internalizing by the mental health sufferer of their perceptions of
discrimination.”  

 

             If the understanding of depression persists,
it can yield a variety of negative outcomes. For instance, the stigmatization
of those who suffer from it may cause sufferers to form a self–stigma. Once the
sufferer internalizes these false perceptions of discrimination, it may lead to
worsening their state of illness. Furthermore, “perceived stigma can
significantly affect feelings of shame and lead to poorer treatment outcomes.” (Perlick et
al. par. 12).

 

            There is an existent
lack of understanding of clinical depression among adolescents aged 16-21. There
is also proof that adolescents are more susceptible to depression, due to the
hormonal spike in their body systems. This is even more evident in girls going
through the stage of adolescence. This lack of understanding accompanied with
increased vulnerability puts these adolescents at a risk of suffering from
depression along with a lack of coping knowledge and at the same time may put
those who suffer from it in a worsened state as some, if not majority of their
peers lack understanding of the illness.

 

            For instance, Jorm (2000) stated “Although adequate acknowledgment and
understanding has been paid to health literacy, the sector of concerning mental
health literacy has been relatively left out” (par. 2). Another example of this
existent lack of understanding was discussed by Sathyanarayana, Rao, Asha,
& Rao (2008) in their paper titled “Understanding nutrition, depression and
mental illnesses” where they argue that only a limited amount of people are
aware of the correlation between depression and nutrition however most people
easily comprehend the connection between physical ailments and nutritional
deficiencies. Additionally, Thapar, Collishaw, & Thapar (2012)
highlight that depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but
frequently unrecognized.  They also state
that girls going through adolescence are more susceptible to the illness. The
same study claims that the “1 year prevalence rate among adolescents exceed 4%”
(par. 7), showing that the latter is truly vulnerable to the disease, especially
in mid-to-late adolescence. To add fuel to the fire, this existent
misunderstanding yields stigmatization. Not surprisingly, Florez (2003) said
that it has often been proven that stigmatization and prejudice are the main
reasons as to why many people do not seek help or postpone seeking help until
it is too late. The paper
“Anxiety and depression in the workplace: Effects on the individual and organization
(a focus group investigation)” by Haslam, Atkinson, and Haslam (2005) reported
that “The respondents felt a pressing
stigma and were not comfortable telling people in the workplace about their
illness. A lack of comprehension regarding the nature of anxiety and depression
among their peers and managers was perceived by the respondents.” (par. 3),
highlighting that depression is “stigmatized” and thus misunderstood in the
workplace. The stigmatization then creates an environment where one who is
going through the said illness may not be able to cope with it /be provided
adequate support. The risk of this is highlighted by the
Canadian Mental Health Association. “Poor mental health is a risk factor for chronic
physical conditions. Additionally, people with serious
mental health conditions are at high risk of experiencing chronic physical
conditions as well.” (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2004, par. 5).

 

            However,
numerous counter claims also exist. A study entitled “Depression in Adolescents”
by Rudolph &
Flynn (2014) describe depression in adolescents as an illness that is
“recognized” (par. 2), contrary to the researcher’s claim that depression is
currently in lack of understanding. Additionally, a study titled “Adolescent
Mental Health Literacy: Young People’s Knowledge of Depression and Help Seeking”
(2005) looked into the mental health literacy (how much one knows
about mental health) of a group of adolescents, with reference specifically to
their ability to identify symptoms of depression in their colleagues.
Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents comprised of 122 males and 80
females, all of them within 15-17 years of age. Their mental health literacy
was determined through a questionnaire that presented five different scenarios
of young people. The respondents displayed a mixed ability to correctly recognize
and label depression, however they demonstrated the ability to differentiate
depressed and non-depressed scenarios in terms of severity and expected
recovery time. The results were discussed in correlation to the findings coming
from adult mental health literacy and clinical implications. This result thus
counters the researcher’s claim as the respondents exhibited ability to fairly
recognize and label depression, and even differentiate depressed and
non-depressed scenarios in terms of severity and expected recovery time.

 

            The
research gap is mainly the lack of studies focusing on the importance and
urgency on the lack of understanding of clinical depression among adolescents
aged 16-21. A number of previous studies have focused on the current state of
the awareness of the illness’ understanding among adolescents, however no study
has paid a premium on the reasons as to why these adolescents lack
understanding and more importantly, why these adolescents exhibit vulnerability
and susceptibility to this illness.

 

            The research problem is concerned mainly on the following
questions:

            1. Why is there a lack of understanding of clinical
depression among adolescents aged                  16-21?

            2. Are adolescents aged 16-21 really more vulnerable to
clinical depression, and if so,                    why?

            3. What are the possible negative effects of the lack of
understanding and vulnerability,                both to those who suffer from it
and their surrounding peers as well?

 

            The researcher questioned the reasons for the lack of
understanding to understand the underlying factors that play a role to the
existent lack of understanding. Additionally, the researcher selected
adolescents as the focus of the study as adolescents are those who go through
key hormonal changes in their systems which affect them  physically, mentally, and emotionally. The
researcher aimed to uncover the underlying factors in order to be able to
address the issues by finding remedies to whatever factors are proven to fuel
the misunderstanding and vulnerability.

 

           

 

 

 

 

Objectives
of the Capstone Project (Extended Playlist of Songs that Aim to Raise
Understanding Of Clinical Depression)

1. To give a clear,
concise, and accurate definition of what clinical depression is, and possibly
what it feels like in the form of a song/s.

2. To raise
understanding of clinical depression and how to cope with it and support those
who suffer from it in the form of a song/s.

 

Overview of the Study

            The study aims to prove that there is an existent lack of
understanding about clinical depression among adolescents aged 16-21. The study
also aims to understand whether or not adolescents aged 16-21 are highly
vulnerable to depression. The researcher will focus on adolescents in various
schools around the Metro. They will be interviewed with a questionnaire to test
their understanding of clinical depression verified by a licensed guidance
counselor who graduated with a Master’s degree in Psychology from the
University of Santo Tomas. The results will then be described in a qualitative
manner. The areas that the respondents misunderstand will then be what the
songs will aim to cover and explain.

 

 

 

References:

            Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D. S., &
Thapar, A. K. (2012, March 17). Depression in adolescence. Retrieved January
10, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488279/

The Link Between Depression and Other Mental
Illnesses. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/link-to-other-mental-illnesses#1

Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002,
February). Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness.
Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489832/

avey, G. C. (2013, August 20). Mental Health
& Stigma. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/why-we-worry/201308/mental-health-stigma

Ahmedani, B. K. (2011). Mental Health Stigma:
Society, Individuals, and the Profession. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3248273/

Rudolph, K. D., & Flynn, M. (n.d.). Depression in
Adolescents. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-10695-021

Burns, J. R., & Rapee, R. M. (2006, April). Adolescent
mental health literacy: young people’s knowledge of depression and help
seeking. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15996727

The Link Between Depression and Other Mental
Illnesses. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/link-to-other-mental-illnesses#1

Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002,
February). Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness.
Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489832/

avey, G. C. (2013, August 20). Mental Health
& Stigma. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/why-we-worry/201308/mental-health-stigma

Ahmedani, B. K. (2011). Mental Health Stigma:
Society, Individuals, and the Profession. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3248273/