University you know what voltage a motor should

University of SALAHADDIN – ERBILCollege of ENGINEERINGSOFTWARE Department World of ROBOTS  Prepared by:    Supervised By:Ahmed JASIM       Mrs. SANAR FAWZIAbstract     There are many contents about Robots. Robots are really complex inside and fascinating outside. We have software & hardware levels about robots they are programmed & made by humans robot hardware is the body which has many different kind of tool with different excitementand robot software is the operating systems. There many types of robots like a Fish Robot, War Robot or Soft Robot etc. However it’s hard to control every motion of a robot but as human programmed it looks amazing Robots have bright future its clear about. Humans will really love to improve it much more than its now and it’s really interesting.?World of Robots A robot is a machine especially one programmable by a computer capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look.Here we Mention a few information about some contents:• Robot hardware • Robot control • Mathematic of Robot control• Robot vision• Knowledge Based Vision Systems• Robot shape • The future of robots? Robot HardwareExamples:Wheels Robot builders often find that the trickiest part of a robotics project is making the wheels. First you need to find a suitable tire/wheel combination, and then you must figure out a way to attach a sprocket so that it will handle the torque of a geared-down drive motor.Motors From the start, operating motors seem quite simple. Apply a voltage to both terminals, and it spins. But what if you want to control which direction the motor spins? Correct, you reverse the wires. Now what if you want the motor to spin at half that speed? You would use less voltage. But how would you get a robot to do those things autonomously? How would you know what voltage a motor should get? Why not 50V instead of 12V? What about motor overheating? Operating motors can be much more complicated than you think.Sensors the light sensor uses a photocell that allows your robot to detect and react to light. With the light sensor, you can program a whole new range of capabilities to your robot. Design a simple tracker that follows the beam of a flashlight, or use a light sensor to help your robot to avoid getting stuck under furniture by making it steer away from shadows. You can even give your robot color vision by putting colored filters on different light sensors!?Robot Control Is the study and practicing of controlling robots By the way we got different ways or many ways to control different structures first of all, Motion planning for controlling is a term used in robotics for the process of breaking down a desired movement task into discrete motions that satisfy movement constraints and possibly optimize some aspect of the movement. Second, Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines. The objective is to develop a control model for controlling such systems using a control action in an optimum manner without delay or overshoot and ensuring control stability. Third, Visual serving (VS) also known as vision-based robot control is a technique which uses feedback information extracted from a vision sensor to control the motion of a robot. One of the earliest papers that talks about visual serving was from the SRI International Labs in 1979.?Mathematics of a RobotMathematics in robotics mainly involves robot kinematics. Robot kinematics is the study of the motion (kinematics) of robots. In a kinematic analysis the position, velocity and acceleration of all the links are calculated without considering the forces that cause this motion. The relationship between motion, and the associated forces and torques is studied in robot dynamics. One of the most active areas within robot kinematics is the screw theory. Robot kinematics deals with aspects of redundancy, collision avoidance and singularity avoidance. While dealing with the kinematics used in the robots we deal each parts of the robot by assigning a frame of reference to it and hence a robot with many parts may have many individual frames assigned to each movable parts. For simplicity we deal with the single manipulator arm of the robot. Each frames are named systematically with numbers, for example the immovable base part of the manipulator is numbered 0, and the first link joined to the base is numbered 1, and the next link 2 and similarly till for the last link. Robot kinematics are mainly of the following two types: forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Forward kinematics is also known as direct kinematics. In forward kinematics, the length of each link and the angle of each joint is given and we have to calculate the position of any point in the work volume of the robot. In inverse kinematics, the length of each link and position of the point in work volume is given and we have to calculate the angle of each joint.?Robot VisionOne of the most fundamental tasks that vision is very useful for is the recognition of objects (be they machine parts, light bulbs, etc) Evolution Robotics introduced a significant milestone in the near real time recognition of objects based on various points. The software identifies points in an image that look the same even if the object is moved, rotated or scaled by some small degree. Matching these points to previously seen image points allows the software to ‘understand’ what it is looking at even if it does not see exactly the same image.As the hobbyist robotics market rapidly grows so too are the machine vision choices that the hobbyist has at their disposal. The CMU Cam (initially created at Carnegie Mellon) is by far the most popular vision camera that can track an object based on its color and even move the camera if it is mounted on servos (small motors) to track the object. At a low price and basic usage it has become very widely used by hobby and academic robotics.?Knowledge Based Vision SystemsKnowledge Based Vision Systems are described as which configurations automatically programs for image processing and supports the recognition of objects. The system runs in two phases. In the first phase based on the primitives (curved edges, corners etc.) and the explicit specification of the content of the image given by the user a sequence of operators will be generated and all their free parameters will be computed adaptively. In this phase the system uses a rule base composed of knowledge of visual processing operators, their parameters, and their interdependence. In the second phase a hierarchical object model is formulated and edited by the user based on the primitives selected in the first phase. The system editor is specially provided for this purpose. Using the hierarchical object model facilitates a rapid interpretation of the result obtained from the previous image processing for the subsequent object recognition.?Robot shape When we talk about shape of robots we get many shapes many kinds of robots nowadays made anyhow we mention some of them: HUMANOID ROBOT is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of al locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs; though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. And roidsare humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.?JESSIKO robot fish on FRANCE PAVILION at YEOSU 2012 World ExpoA robot fish is a type of bionic robot, which has the shape and locomotion of a living fish. Since the Massachusetts Institute of Technology first published research on them in 1989, there have been more than 400 articles published about robot fish. According to these reports, approximately 40 different types of robot fish have been building, with 30 designs having only the capability to flip and drift in water. Most robot fish are designed to emulate living fish which use. Body Caudal Fin (BCF) propulsion. BCF robot fish can be divided into three categories: Single Joint (SJ), Multi-Joint (MJ), and smart material-based design. The most important parts of researching and developing robot fish are advancing their control and navigation, enabling them to ‘communicate’ with their environment, making it possible for them to travel along a particular path, and to respond to commands to make their ‘fins’ flapSOFT LEGGED-Wheel Based Robot with Terrestrial Locomotion Abilities.Soft Robotics is the specific subfield of robotics dealing with constructing robots from highly compliant materials, similar to those found in living organisms.Soft robotics draws heavily from the way in which living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. In contrast to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved safety when working around humans, These characteristics allow for its potential use in the fields of medicine and manufacturing.Types of robot sensors (Light and Sound sensors)Robotic sensors are used to estimate a robot’s condition and environment. These signals are passed to a controller to enable appropriate behavior. Sensors in robots are based on the functions of human sensory organs. Robots require extensive information about their environment in order to function effectively.(CHAOS) a combatant robot  from the Robot Wars TV series. Its weapon is a CO2-powered pneumatic flipper Robot combat is a form of robot competition in which two or more custom-built machines use varied methods of destroying or disabling the other. Despite the name, the machines are generally remote-controlled vehicles rather than autonomous robots.Robot combat competitions have been made into television series, including Battle bots in the US and Robot Wars in the UK. These shows were originally broadcast in the late 1990s to early 2000s and experienced revivals in the mid-2010s. As well as televised competitions, smaller robot combat events are staged for live audiences such as those organized by the Robot Fighting League.Robot builders are generally hobbyists and the complexity and cost of their machines can vary substantially. Robot combat uses weight classes, with the heaviest robots able to exert more power and destructive capabilities. The rules of competitions are designed for safety of the builders, operators, and spectators while also providing for an entertaining spectacle. Robot combat arenas are generally surrounded by a bulletproof screen.Competitor robots come in a variety of designs, with different strategies for winning fights. Robot designs typically incorporate weapons for attacking opponents, such as axes, hammers, flippers and spinning devices. Rules almost always prohibit gun-like weapons as well as other strategies not conducive to the safety and enjoyment of participants and spectators.The Future of RobotsVarious techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent “generation” of robots. Another method is developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other functions. Another new type of robot is just recently introduced which acts both as a Smartphone and robot and is named (ROBOHON).As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots. Robot Operating System is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich, Germany, among others. ROS provides ways to program a robot’s navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. When ROS boots up on a robot’s computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots’ limbs. It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a “Windows for robots” system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since 2007. Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry. Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction. As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots would: 1. Clean parts by removing molding flash 2. Spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3. Pack things in boxes—for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes.4. Make electrical cable harness.5. Load trucks with boxes—a packing problem.6. Handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes.7. Shear sheep. 8. Prosthesis.9. Cook fast food and work in other service industries.10. Household robot.Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale.?New Functionalities and PrototypesIn 2008, Caterpillar Inc. developed a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator. Many analysts believe that self-driving trucks may eventually revolutionize logistics. By 2014, Caterpillar had a self-driving dump truck which is expected to greatly change the process of mining. In 2015, these Caterpillar trucks were actively used in mining operations in Australia by the mining company Rio Tinto Coal Australia. Some analysts believe that within the next few decades, most trucks will be self-driving. A literate or ‘reading robot’ named Marge has intelligence that comes from software. She can read newspapers, find and correct misspelled words, learn about banks like Barclays, and understand that some restaurants are better places to eat than others. Baxter is a new robot introduced in 2012 which learns by guidance. A worker could teach Baxter how to perform a task by moving its hands in the desired motion and having Baxter memorize them. Extra dials, buttons, and controls are available on Baxter’s arm for more precision and features. Any regular worker could program Baxter and it only takes a matter of minutes, unlike usual industrial robots that take extensive programs and coding in order to be used. This means Baxter needs no programming in order to operate. No software engineers are needed. This also means Baxter can be taught to perform multiple, more complicated tasks. Sawyer was added in 2015 for smaller, more precise tasks. As a Conclusion I guess robots are really a great part in our lives. We get many benefits from robots. Of course the world of robots will grow up and it will bring much easier life. Robots are really complex as we made it but then really it’s amazing as we see.?Bibliography:i. Martin, Ford: Rise of the Robots Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future.ii. International Federation Of Robotics: https://ifr.orgiii. Brian, Morris: The World of Robots. (2nd Edition)iv. What is Robots: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/robot-insect-robot-autonomous-robotv. Brain, Waves: Real World Robots.