the enhancing of urbanization and amelioration of living standards, the volume
of solid waste is increasing at around the world. Also municipal solid waste
generation rate depends on economic development, the proportion of
industrialization, public habitat and local climate. Developing countries are
the leading waste producers around the world, because of their high rate of
population growth, economic expansion and rapid urbanization. These factors are
accelerating rates of municipal solid waste production. The problem of waste
management has become a major social problem around the world. However, with
proper waste management system, municipal solid waste has the opportunity to
become valuable resources and green energy for the society.
1.2.1 Entropy and waste management
Waste is an inevitable product of society. And it is
mainly consist with non-homogeneous material. Therefore waste have higher
entropy than single constituents. According to 2nd law of
thermodynamics; in an isolated system only those processes in which entropy
does not decrease can occur.
Entropy = Disorder
The reusability of waste depends on their entropic
level and there are two obstacle to recycling such as;
obstacle – currently waste entropic level discourages private activities of
collection and recycling. Also, separating different component is expensive.
obstacle – often entropy constitutes physically a barrier to recycling: it is
not possible to recycle a trace component or inextricably mixed component.
Entropy level with marker price (Source: )
Graph 1.2: Relationship between
mixed waste and separation cost (Source: G. Vogel, “The Economics of Waste
Management”, Proc. Summer School “Innovative Technologies and Environmental
Impacts in Waste Management”, Rimini, 2007.)
The development of these markets will depend on the
choices of environmental policy and on available instruments Organizational and
managerial planning obstacle. Therefore disposal of waste needs to be carefully
managed in order to avoid causing damage to the environment.
There are three fundamental methods of managing
waste or pollution. One of them is command and control, and this involves the
government is making laws, regulations and standards that the producers and
consumers have to follow, thus managing the waste and pollution that is generated.
The second method is to raise public awareness. This method aims to motivate
people through awareness, or knowledge and understanding and it has an
altruistic or spiritual angle as it requires people to realize their
responsibility and their wish to not harm others. The third method is use of
economic instruments. In economic instrument either financial incentives are
given to the target group of the people to alter their behavior. (Geo Watch,
However, proper management of MSW is influential to eliminates
adverse impacts on the environment and human health, reduce pollution, support
economic development, improve the living environment and level of ecological
civilization and achieve scienti?c urban development.
According to waste prevention directive 2008/98/EC
Art.3 (“Definitions”), par. 9 waste management means the collection, transport,
recovery, and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations
and the after-care of disposal sites, and including actions taken as a dealer or
of a waste management system
A comprehensive MSWM system includes few or all of
the following activities:
are planned and evaluated by system designers, users and other stakeholders
to the types of waste generating by using waste characterization studies.
handling waste and recoverable materials, including separation, collection, composting,
incineration, and landfilling
recovered materials to brokers or to end-users for industrial, commercial, or
small scale manufacturing purposes
programs for MSWM workers
public information and education programs
mechanisms and cost recovery systems
prices for services, and creating incentives
sector administrative and operations units
private sector businesses, including informal sector collectors, processors,